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Monday, 13 July 2015

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 4 The Cell Definitions

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 4 The Cell Definitions


Active transport:
The movement of molecules from lower concentration to higher concentration by the expenditure of energy is called active transport.

Cell:
The cell can be defined as structural and functional unit of life. 

Cell theory:
All the living organisms are composed of cells and cell products.

Chloroplast:
The membrane bound structure, containing green pigment is called chloroplast. Present only in plant cells.

Colloidal solution:
The solution in which size of particles of solute is bigger than solution is colloidal solution.

Cytoskeleton:
The cytosol of cytoplasm contains cytoskeletal fabric. The cytoskeleton is composed of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments.

Cytosol:
The soluble part of the cytoplasm is called cytosol.

Diffusion:
The movement of molecules form the area of higher concentration to the area of lower concentration is called diffusion.

Endocytosis:
The intake of the food material by in folding of the membrane in the form of vacuole is called endocytosis.

Eukaryotic cell:
These cell contain a definite nucleus. Nuclear membrane is present and chromatin material is bounded by a membrane.

Fluid Mosaic model: 
According to this model the proteins do not form a continuous layer. It is not present on the outer surface infact. Proteins are embedded in the lipid bi-layers in a mosaic manner.

Gel:
The viscous colloidal solution is called gel.

Granum:
A granum is pile of thylakoids, stacked on each other like coins.

Magnification:
The magnification of a microscope can be determined by multiplying X value of ocular with X value of the objective. It is the enlargement of object with the use of lenses.

New definition of cell theory:
Living things are chemical organizations. These are composed of cells and capable of reproducing themselves.

Omnis cellula:
All the cells are formed only by the division of previously living cells.

Plastids:
The membranous bound and pigment containing bodies present in the plant are called plastids.

Prokaryotic cell:
It is primitive type of cell in which cell lack definite nucleus and membrane bounded organelles.

Protoplasm:
The living contents (nucleus and cytoplasm) collectively form protoplasm.

Resolution:
The human eye can differentiate between two points. Which are at least 1.0 m apart. This is known as resolution of eye.

Sol:
Non-viscous colloidal solution is called sol.

Storage diseases:
Several congenital diseases are caused due to accumulation of certain substances like glycogen and glycolipids. These are called storage diseases. These are caused by absence of lysosomal enzymes.

Written by: Asad Hussain.