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Wednesday, 9 September 2015

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 9 Kingdom Plantae Definitions

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 9 Kingdom Plantae Definitions


Actinomorphic flower:
When a flower can be cut into two equal halves by more than one plane, it is called actinomorphic flower.

Alternation of generations:
The phenomenon in which haploid gametophyte and diploid sporophyte generation regularly alternate with each other is called alternation of generation,

Angiosperms:
The plants in which seed is enclosed in fruits and develop flowers are called angiosperms.

Antheridia:
Antheridia are male reproductive organs.

Arthrophytes:
The plant body of sphenopsida is composed of large number of joints. So these plants are also called arthrophytes.

Biennial:
A plant which survives in two growing seasons like radish is called biennial plant.

Bryophytes:
Bryophytes are defined as plants without vascular bundle, gametophyte generation is dominant, sporophyte attached to gametophyte and these are homosporous.

Circinate vernation:
The fronds are coiled when they are young and immature. The pattern of development is called circinate vernation.

Compound leaf:
In this case, the leaves are large with divided vein and veinlets. These leaves have expanded lamina.

Cymose inflorescence:
In this cause, main axis soon ends in flower. Below this flower one or more axis arises. These again end in a flower. This continues.

Dicot:
They have two cotyledons in the seed.

Double fertilization:
The fusion of two male gametes with two cells simultaneously is called double fertilization.

Floret:
The whole structure consisting of lemma, palea and flower is called floret.

Flower:
A flower is modified shoot (stem and leaves). It is the reproductive part of plant.

Fronds:
The compound leaves of ferns which are divided into pinnae and pinnules are called fronds.

Fruit:
The ripened ovary is called fruit.

Gametophyte:
The gamete producing generation is called gametophyte.

Gymnosperm:
The naked seeded plants which do not develop fruit and flower are called gymnosperms.

Herb:
An annual green small sized plant is called herb.

Hypogynous:
In this case, the thalamus is covex.

Inflorescence:
Group of flower is called inflorescence.

Legume or pod:
A dehiscent fruit present is called legume.

Ligule:
It is small single outgrowth at the base of lamina of leaf.

Megaphylls:
Large leaves with divided veins and veinlets and with expanded leaf blade or lamina are known as megaphylls.

Microphylls:
Small leaves with small size and with single undivided vell (vascular supply) is called microphylls.

Monocot:
They have one cotyledon in the seed.

Oosphere:
Unfertilized egg is called Oosphere.

Oospore:
Fertilized egg is called Oospore.

Overtopping:
The unequal development of various branches is called overtopping.

Ovule:
An integumented and indehiscent megasporangium is called ovule.

Perigynous:
In this case, the thalamus is flattened. Ovary is present in the center.

Petiolate:
Leaves with stalk are called petiolate.

Phylogenetic system:
The system of classification which is based on the natural relationship among the organisms and their mode of origin is called phylogenetic system of classification. 

Placentation:
The attachment of ovule in the ovary is called placentation.

Planation:
The arrangement of the dichotomous branches in one plane is called planation.

Pollen:
Pollen is a microspore containing male gametophyte.

Protonema:
The spore of mosses produces algae like structure called protonema.

Psilopsida:
This group includes vascular plants without true leaves and roots.

Recemose inflorescence:
In this case, the main axis continues to grow and develop lateral flowers.

Seed:
Seed may be defined as fertilized ovule.

Sessile:
Leaves without stalk are called sessile.

Shrub:
The woody green plant whose main stem cannot be distinguished from its branches is called shrub.

Simple leaf:
The lamina of simple leaf from one piece and it is not divided into small leaflets.

Spermatophytes:
All seed producing plants are called spermatophytes.

Spiklete:
The grasses have compound inflorescence. The unit of this compound inflorescence is called spikelet.

Sporophylls:
The leaves bearing sporangia are called sporophylls.

Stipule:
The pair of lateral outgrowth present at base of petiole pf leaf is called stipules.

Tracheophytes:
The vascular plants with xylem and phloem tissues are called tracheophytes.

Tree:
It is perennial green woody plant with a distinct upright stem of 6 feet or more is called tree.

Webbing:
The filling of the space between dichotomous branches by sheet of parenchyma cells is called fusion or webbing.

Zygomorphic flower:
When a flower can be cut into two equal halves by only one plane then it is called zygomorphic flower.

Written by: Asad Hussain

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