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Monday, 7 September 2015

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 12 Nutrition Definitions

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 12 Nutrition Definitions


Adipose tissue:
Groups of fat cells form adipose tissue.

Anorexia:
The loss of appetite arises due to the fear of becoming obese is called anoxeria nervosa.

Appendix:
A finger like process arises from the blind end of the caecum. It is called appendix.

Assimilation:
The utilization of the products of digestion for the production of energy or synthesis of cellular material is called assimilation.

Autotrophic nutrition:
The mode of nutrition in which the organisms can synthesize their food from inorganic salts is called autotrophic nutrition.

Bile:
The bile is green watery fluid secreted by liver. It contains no enzyme.

Bulimia nervosa:
It is the characterize by bout of overeating of fattening food like fried food, cream and cakes. This over eating is followed by self induced vomiting fasting or purgatives.

Caecum:
The caecum is blind sac. It projects from large intestine ileum and colon.

Carnivores:
The animals that feed on other animals are called carnivores. A predator is and animal which captures and readily kills live animals for its food.

Chlorosis:
The lack of chlorophyll's in the leaves due to minerals deficiency is called chlorosis.

Diarrhea:
If the absorption of water does not take place in large intestine, it causes diarrhea.

Constipation:
It is other extreme condition. In this case, excessive water is absorbed.

Defecation reflex:
The reflex to empty the rectum is called defecation reflex. or reflex that cause elimination of bowl form rectum.

Detritivores:
The animals that feed on detritus are called detritivores.

Digestion:
The breakdown of complex organic compounds of food into simple diffusible molecules by the action of enzymes is called digestion.

Dyspepsia:
Incomplete or imperfect digestion is called dyspepsia.

Ectoparasite:
A parasite that lives upon its host is called ectoparasite.

Egestion:
The elimination of the undigested matter from the body is called egestion.

Emulsification:
Emulsification means breakdown of fats into small globules.

Endoparasite:
A parasite that lives within the host is called endoparasite.

Extracellular digestion:
The breakdown of food outside the cell within the gut cavity or lumen is called extracellular digestion.

Filter feeders:
The animals which filter food from water by different organs are called filter feeders.

Fluid feeders:
THE animals which ingest food in the form of liquid are called fluid feeders.

Food poisoning:
The illness from indigestion of food containing toxic substances is called food poisoning.

Gall stones:
The liver secretes cholesterol. Sometimes, this cholesterol precipitates in the gall bladder to produce gall stones.

Gastric juice:
The secretion of all three types of cells of gastric gland is collectively called gastric juice. It helps is digestion of food.

Heart burn:
Heart burn is a painful burning sensation in the chest. It is caused by back flush of food.

Herbivore:
The animals that feed on plants are called herbivore.

Intracellular digestion:
The breakdown of food within the cell is called intracellular digestion.

Jaundice:
Sometimes, bile pigments are prevented from leaving the digestive tract. So they may accumulate in blood and cause a condition called jaundice.

Lichens:
The mutualistic association between fungus and algae in cells is called lichens.

Microvilli:
Electron microscope show that the epithelial cells of villi have numerous closely packed cylindrical processes called microvilli.

Mycorrhizal association:
The mutualistic association between the fungus and roots of higher plants is called mycorrhizae.

Nutrient:
The nutrient is the food or element or any substance that supplies the body elements necessary for metabolism.

Nutrition:
The sum total of all the processes involved in the taking and utilization of the elements for growth repair and maintenance of activities in the organisms is called nutrition.

Obligate parasite:
The parasites which live parasitically at all times in their host are called obligate parasites. They cannot survive without their host.

Omnivores:
The animals which eat both animals and plants food are called omnivores.

Parasite:
An organism which lives on or within another organism called the host of obtaining its food and caused harms in host is called parasite.

Parasitic nutrition:
The feeding by living in or on other organisms belonging to different species is called parasitic nutrition.

Piles:
Piles are masses of dilated tortuous veins in the anorectal mucosa.

Peristalsis:
Downward movement of food along the alimentary canal by the contraction and relaxation of circular and longitudinal muscles is called peristalsis.

Saprophytic nutrition:
The feeding on dead and decaying matter is called saprophytic nutrition.

Symbiotic nutrition:
It is a mutual nutrition between the organisms belonging to different species, living in association with one another.

Ulcer:
The sore in the inner wall of digestive tract is called ulcer.

Villi:
The internal surface of the ileum has numerous finger like outgrowths called villi.

Epithelial tissues:
The tissues in which spaces between the cells are absent and the cells are arranged in compact form e.g., epithelium of skin, stomach. These cells form lining of the organs.

Written By: Asad Hussain


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