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Thursday, 3 September 2015

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 8 Fungi Definitions

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 8 Fungi Definitions


Ascospores:
Ascospores spores may be produced in the characteristic fruiting bodies called asci or ascocarps.

Basidiospores:
Basidiospores are haploid sexual spores produced in the characteristic fruiting bodies called basidia or basidiocarps.

Bioremediation:
Bioremediation means degrading or removed environmental poisons/pollutants by organisms.

Coenocytic hyphae:
Non-septated multinucleate hyphae are called coenocytic hyphae.

Conidia:
Conidia are naked non-motile asexual spores which are cut of at end of modified hyphae called conidiospores.

Deutromycota:
Deutromycota includes all such fungi in which sexual reproduction is absent.

Dikaryotic or Heterokaryotic hyphae:
The fungal having two genetically different nuclei are called dikaryotic or heterokaryotic hyphae.

Ecological succession:
The establishment of new vegetation on a barren or rock is called ecological succession.

Fungi:
The eukaryotic organisms which have cell wall but cannot synthesize their food and are absorptive in nature are called fungi.

Haustoria:
Those are special hyphae produced in parasitic fungi. These hyphae penetrate into the host tissue and absorb food.

Karyogamy:
The fusion of nuclei is called karyogamy.

Lichens:
Lichen is a mutualistic  association between fungi and certain photoautotrophs like algae or blue, green algae.

Mushrooms:
A fungi with flattened head and a stalk is generally called mushroom. These are umbrella like in shape.

Mutualistic association:
Mutualistic symbiotic association is and association between two organisms in which both organisms get benefits.

Mycelium:
The body of fungus is called mycelium.

Mycorrhizae:
Mycorrhizae are mutualistic association between certain fungi and roots of vascular plants.

Hyphae:
The long, slender branded tubular thread like filament is called hyphae.

Non-septate hyphae:
They lack septa and hyphae are not divided into individual cells.

Nuclear mitosis:
In this case nuclear envelop does not break during mitosis.

Parasexuality:
The exchange of portion of chromosomes of two nuclei lying in the same hypha is called parasexuality. It is present in deutromycetes.

Parasitic fungi:
The fungi which directly absorb nutrients from the living host cytoplasm are called parasitic fungi.

Plasmogamy:
The fusion of cytoplasm is called plasmogamy.

Predator fungi:
The fungi which kill and eat the animals are called predator fungi.

Rust:
It's a fungal disease and its color is brown like of iron.

Saprotroph:
The fungi which obtain their food from dead organic matter are called saprotroph fungi.

Septate hyphae:
Septate hyphae are divided by cross walls, called septa into individual cells.

Spore:
Spores are small, haploid and non-motile structures covered by hard wall.

Yeasts:
Yeasts are unicellular microscopic fungi.

Zygospore:
The zygospore is a temporary, dormant, thick wall resistant structure.

Written by: Asad Hussain

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