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Friday, 20 February 2015

ICS Computer Notes Part 1 Chapter 5 (Computer Architecture) Short Questions from Past Papers

                  ICS Computer Notes Part 1 Chapter 5 

(Computer Architecture) Short Questions from Past Papers

 
Q 1.    What is an object code?
Ans. The machine language version that results from compiling the High Level Languages code is called the object code or object program. The compiler stores the object code on storage media for execution later.

Q 2.      What is language translator or language processor?
Ans. A language processor is a special type of computer software that has the capacity of translator the source code or program code into machine codes. The following are different types of language processors are:
  1. Compiler
  2. Assembler
  3. Interpreter

Q 3.      What is EPROM?
Ans. EPROM stands for Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. Once data is stored on ROM or EPROM, it cannot be modified. However, there is another type of memory chips called EPROM.

Q 4.      What is assembler?
Ans. An assembler translates from a low level language to binary machine code. The assembler produces one machine instruction for each source instruction. The assemblers are generally used in assembling the source code or program code written in assembly language.

Q 5.      What is cache memory?
Ans. Main memory is a computer device with the slowest access rate. If the CPU needs a data item, a request is sent to main memory via a memory bus. The main memory then searches for the data item and sends it back to the CPU.

Q 6.      What is main memory?
Ans. Main memory is a computer device with the slowest access rate. If the CPU needs a data item, a request is sent to the main memory via a memory bus. The main memory then searches for the data item and sends it back to the CPU. Lot of time is wasted in this entire cycle. So to avoid this delay a cache memory is built-in in the CPU to temporarily store the frequently used instructions and data so that CPU should not approach RAM for data every time and hence lot of time will be saved. The use of Cache Memory is vital to enhance the speed of processor.    

Q 7.      What is DRAM?
Ans. DRAM chips must be recharged or refreshed constantly again and again. When we on the computer the DRAM chip gets charged, and discharged as we use it.

Q 8.      What is assembly language?
Ans. With an assembly language, the second generation of programming languages also called low level language: a programmer writes instructions using symbolic instruction codes.

Q 9.     What is ALU?
Ans. The data bus comments the microprocessor with other devices mapped on to the system. This is often described pictorially using a memory map. Unlike the address bus, the data bus is two-way .The data bus is not limited to transferring data: it is also used to transfer program instructions.

Q 10. What is ROM?
Ans. ROM stands for Read Only Memory. Once data is stored on ROM it cannot be modified. However, there is another type of memory chips called ROM.

Q 11. What is data bus?
Ans. The data bus connects the microprocessor with other devices mapped onto the system. This is often described pictorially using a memory map.

Q 12.What are CPU registers?
Ans. A processor contains small but very fast computer memory used to speed the execution of computer programs that are called registers.

Q 13.What are the activate of control unit?
Ans. The control unit is the component of the processor that directs and coordinates most of the operations in the computer. The control unit has a role much like a traffic cop: it interprets each instruction issued by a program and then initiates the appropriate action to carry out the instruction. Types of internal components that control unit direct include the arithmetic/logic unit, registers, and buses. 

Q 14. Differentiate between SRAM and DRAM?
Ans. DRAM is based on technology which needs to be recharged after some specific time again and again so it is slow but SRAM does not recharge during execution of instruction so it is fast.

Q 15. What is instruction set?
Ans. A single machine cycle instruction may be made up of a substantial number of sub instructions each of which must take at least one clock cycle. Each type of central processing unit is designed to understand a specific group of instructions called instruction set.

Q 16. Define motherboard?
Ans. Motherboard is hardware component all the hardware devices are connect to this board and all the data travels from one device to another with the help of this device.

Q 17. What are control transfer instructions?
Ans. The instructions that are used to transfer the execution control from one part of the program to another during program execution are called control transfer instructions. These instructions may be used to execute a set of instruction repeated for a number of times.

Q 18. Why does DRAM use more power?
Ans. DRAM has to recharge again and again during execution of instructions so it use more power than SRAM. This activity of recharging makes it slower.

Q 19. What is bus interconnection?
Ans. Data in the form of electric on-off signals (bits) travel from RAM to CPU,CPU to RAM and other one device to another. For transmission of data in different components there are the pathways which are called buses.

Q 20. Why does machine language program execute faster?
Ans. The programs in the machine language execute faster because computer under stand these codes and there is no need to translate them.

Q 21. Why ROM is called non-volatile memory?
Ans. ROM is called a nonvolatile memory because the data stored in ROM is not lost/erased when the computer power off.

Q 22. Write the name of different system buses?
Ans. Names of different system buses
  1. Data bus
  2. Control bus
  3. Address bus.

Written by: Asad Hussain  &  Muhammad Jawad

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