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Friday, 20 March 2015

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 12 Nutrition

              FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 12 Nutrition

Q 1. What is stomach?
Ans. It is enlargement of the anterior region of the gut. In vertebrates it follows oesophagus and usually has muscular walls which are helpful in crushing the food, and the lining cells secrete pepsin and hydrochloric acid.

Q 2. Write down two function of tongue.
Ans. (1) Manipulation of food.
(2) Holds food in position between the teeth.

Q 3. Define nutrition.
Ans. Nutrition is the sum total of all the processes concerned with growth, repair and maintenance of the living organism as a whole or its constituent parts.

Q 4. What does bolus of food mean?
Ans. As a result of mastication in the oral cavity, the softened, partly digested, slimy food mass is rolled by the tongue into small oval lump called as bolus.

Q 5. Name the bacteria which commonly cause food poisoning?
Ans. These bacteria are Salmonella and Campylobacter.

Q 6. What is the number and nature of sphincters around the areas of man?
Ans. The human anus is surrounded by two sphincters, the internal of smooth and the outer of striped muscles.

Q 7. Name the parts of the large intestine of man.
Ans. These are the colon, caecum and the rectum from in-front backwards.

Q 8. How is Jaundice caused?
Ans. Jaundice is caused by the accumulation of bile pigments in the blood.

Q 9. What is the innermost layer of the human stomach and the other points of the alimentary canal known as?
Ans. It is known as the mucosa.
Q 10. Name two animals which possess a sac like digestive system.
Ans.These animals are Hydra and Pslanaria.

Q 11. How does Amoeba engulf solid food particles?
Ans.  The Amoeba engulfs solid food particles with the help pf pseudopodia.

Q 12. What is most appropriate name for digestive cavity of Hydra?
Ans. It is the coelenteron.

Q 13. Name the opening through which undigested food is ejected in Hydra and the Planaria?
Ans. It is the mouth.

Q 14. Which parts are included in the fore-gut of cockroach?
Ans. These are mouth, cavity, pharynx, crop and gizzard.

Q 15. What is botulism? What is its cause?
Ans.  The severe form of food poisoning is called botulism. Its cause is a bacterium known as Clostridium botulinum.

Q 16. Define obesity.
Ans. The deposition of abnormal amount of fat on the body is termed as obesity.

Q 17. In which machine form is trypsin secreted? How is it activated?
Ans. Trypsin is secreted in the inactive form of trypsinogen which is activated by an enzyme, enterokinase, secreted by the duodenum.

Q 18. Explain heart burn or pyrosis.
Ans. It is a painful burning sensation in the chest usually associated with the back flush of acidic chyme into the oesophagus.

Q 19. How do the farmers replenish the deficiency of nutrient salts?
Ans. The deficiency of nutrient salts is replenished by adding animal manure, sewage sludge or artificial chemical fertilizers to the soil.

Q 20. Explain a predation.
Ans. A predator is an animal which captures and readily kills other animals for its food.

Q 21. Define detritus.
Ans. Detritus is the organic debris derived from the decomposing plants and animals.

Q 22. Why some people develop intestinal gas and diarrhea by consuming milk products?
Ans. Many humans develop intestinal gas and diarrhea by consuming milk products because they lack the enzymes for digesting lactose in milk.

Q 23. Write down the pH of fresh and stale human saliva.
Ans. The pH of the fresh human saliva is about 8 and that of the stale saliva is 6.

Q 24. Define dyspepsia. What are its symptoms?
Ans. Imperfect digestion is called dyspepsia. Its symptoms are abdominal discomfort, flatulence, heartburn, nausea and vomiting.

Q 25. How is constipation caused in man?
Ans. Constipation may be caused due to excessive absorption of water through the large intestine.

Q 26. What are piles or haemonhoids?
Ans. These are masses of dilated, tortuous veins in the anorectal mucosa which bleed during bowl movements.

Q 27. How are gallstones formed in the gall bladder?
Ans. The gallstones are formed in the gall bladder due to the precipitation of cholesterol, secreted by the liver.

Q 28. What are the functions of the enzymes amino-peptidase and erepsin of the intestinal juice?
Ans. The amino-peptidase converts poly-peptidase into dipeptidase whereas the erepsin splits dipeptides into amino acid.

Q 29. What is the emulsification of fats? Which secretion emulsifies fats?
Ans. The breaking down of fats into small globules is called emulsification. It is brought about by the bile.

Written By: Asad Hussain

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