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Wednesday, 20 May 2015

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 9 Kingdom Plantae

       FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 9 Kingdom Plantae

Q 1. What is Oospore?
Ans. A thick walled zygote that is formed after the fertilization of an Oospore.

Q 2. Define a spike.
Ans. A racemose inflorescence is which the flowers are sessile and borne on an elongated axis as in wheat.

Q 3. Are all the seed plants also known as the flowering plants?
Ans. No, only the angiosperms are also called flowering plants but not the gymnosperms.

Q 4. Which are the probable ancestors of bryophytes?
Ans. These are the green algae.

Q 5. Name the most primitive group of vascular plants?
Ans. It is the Psilopsida.

Q 6. Name a heterosporus lycopsid.
Ans. It is the Selaginella.

Q 7. What is a sorus in ferns?
Ans. A group of sporangia is known as a sorus in Adiantum.

Q 8. What is prothallus?
Ans. The gametophyte of fern is also called as the prothallus. It has leaf like shape.

Q 9. What does a stamen of flower consist of?
Ans. The stamen consists of a filament and an anther.

Q 10. From which part of the flower fruit is formed?
Ans. The fruit is formed from the ovary of the flower.

Q 11. How many sperms are carried by one pollen tube?
Ans.  One pollen tube carries two sperms.

Q 12. What is scientific name of Kachnar?
Ans. It is Bauhinia variegata.

Q 13. Which drugs are obtained from Atropa belladona and Datura?
Ans. These drugs are atropine and daturin.

Q 14. What are the names of the pea family?
Ans. The pea family is called Papilionaceae or Fabaceae.

Q 15. Write down the names of the parts of typical carpel.
Ans.  The parts of a typical carpel of flower are the ovary, style and stigma.

Q 16. What is sporophyll?
Ans.  A leaf bearing sporangia is called a sporophyll.

Q 17. State some examples of important ferns.
Ans. These are Dryopteris, Pteridium, Adiantum and Pteris.

Q 18. Which vascular plant first evolved true roots and leaves?
Ans. These were the lycopods.

Q 19. Classify horsetails.
Ans. Kingdom Plantae, division Tracheophyta and sub-division Sphenopsida.

Q 20. What is a thallus i.e., thalloid plant body?
Ans. The body of plant which is not differentiated into root, stem and leaves is called a thallus or thalloid plant body.

Q 21. What are paraphyses in mosses?
Ans. In mosses, paraphyses are the sterile hairs which lie between the antheridia and the archegonia.

Q 22. How do the psilopsids manufacture their food when they lack leaves?
Ans. The aerial branches of psilopsids are green and photosynthesis.

Q 23. Explain indusium.
Ans. Indusium is flap of tissues that partially or completely covers each sorus in certain ferns.

Q 24. Explain racemose inflorescence.
Ans. A racemose inflorescence is that in which the flowers are formed on individual pedicels on the main axis.

Q 25. Define didynamous condition.
Ans. Having two long stamens and two short stamens in single whirl.

Q 26. What is perianth?
Ans. The structure that protects the developing reproductive parts of the flower.

Q 27. What is the principal function of xylem?
Ans. The principle function of xylem in the plants is the upward transportation of water and solutes.

Q 28. What are the seed producing plants normally called?
Ans. The seed producing plants are normally called spermatophytes.

Q 29. What is compound leaf?
Ans. A leaf, the blade of which is divided into several pieces or leaflets is called a compound leaf.

Q 30. Where do the ferns grow?
Ans. The ferns grow in moist and shady places on the hills and in the plants.

Q 31. How are ferns better adapted to life on land than liverworts and mosses?
Ans. (i) Reproduction is not dependent on water.
(ii) Sporophyte and gametophyte are independent generations.

Q 32. Which of the following are nutritionally self supporting:
(i) Mature liverwort and moss gametophyte.
(ii) Mature liverwort and moss sporophyte.
Ans. Mature liverwort and moss gametophyte.

Q 33. The chance of survival and development of wind blown pollen grains are much less than those of spores of Adiantum. Comment on this statement.
Ans. Although spores of Adiantum are also dispersed by wind, however when a spore falls on a moist soil, it germinates at suitable temperature and produces a haploid gametophyte or prothallus. But is case of wind-blown pollen grains, if they fall on soil, they are wasted. for their survival and development it is must for then to fall on the stigma of flower.

Q 34. Account for the fact that megaspores are large and microspores are small.
Ans. Megaspores are large since they have to store food for the growth of embryo.

Q 35. What important advances have angiosperms made towards the seed plant life?
Ans. One of the most significant events in the history of land plants was the development of seed habit. It was and important change in the reproductive system of the vascular plants. Technically as seed may be defined as a fertilized ovule. An ovule is an integumented indehiscent megasporangium, integuments are specialized protective coverings around megasporangium which very in number. Megasporangium is also called Nucleus. All seed producing plants are called spermatophytes.
Major steps in Evolution of Seed:
The major steps associated with the evolution of seed habit are as follows:
  • The evolution of heterospory.
  • Retention and germination of megaspore within the megasporangium.
  • Development of protective layers around megasporangium.
  • Reduction to a single functional megaspore per sporangium.
  • Development of an embryo sac within the sporangium.
  • Modification of distal end of megasporangium for pollen capture.

Q 36. Write a note on the alternation of generations.
Ans. Alternation of Generations: It is the phenomenon in the life cycle of the many plants in which haploid gametophyte and diploid sporophyte regularly alternate with each other.
In the life history of bryophytes, pteridophytes and spermatophytes, there are two distinct phases or generations.
Example of Moss Plant:
(i) Gametophyte: The gametophyte is the dominant generation because it is more conspicuous. It produces gametes called spermatozoid and eggs and is, therefore, called gamete producing generation. A haploid spermatozoid fuses with a haploid egg to produce diploid oospore. The oospore produces a totally different plant called sporophyte.
(ii) Sporophyte: The sporophyte is a less conspicuous generation, which is usually differentiated into foot, seta and capsule. Spores develop within the capsule by meiosis from spore mother cells. The sporophyte produces spores and is, therefore, called spore producing generation. Each spore on germination gives rise to the gametophyte.
It is should be notes that the generation or haploid stage begins with spores and ends at gametes, whereas the sporophytes begins with oospore and ends at spore mother cell.
Significance of Alternation of Generation: Alternation of generation is very significant because:
(iii) It promotes the chance of survival of organism.
(iv) The population become increasingly better adapted to environment.

Q 37. What is the importance of the following:
(i) Seed (ii) Double fertilization (iii) Heterospory
Ans. Seed: Seed is very important structure in angiosperms as it leads to next generation. It has protective coverings so it can tolerate unfavorable condition. Whenever it finds suitable environment it will germinate.
Double Fertilization: It is the phenomenon in life of angiosperms in which one sperm fertilizes the egg forming zygote while other sperm fertilizes fusion nucleus to form a triploid endosperm. The zygote leads to the formation of embryo and then seed while endosperm has stored food which is used for the development of embryo. In certain cases endosperm is the part of the seed and provides food for the germination of seed.
Heterospory: It is the condition in which plants make two type of spores i.e., microspores and megaspores, which are different morphologically, structurally and functionally. They lead to more variations in the next generations.

Q 38. To what does alternation of generation refer in the plants? Define sporophyte and gametophyte. With which stage is an adult animal comparable? How they reproductively dissimilar?
Ans. Alternation of Generation: It is the phenomenon in the life cycle of many plants in which haploid gametophyte and diploid sporophyte regularly alternates with each other.
Sporophyte and Gametophyte: The spore producing generation is called sporophyte while gamete producing generation is called gametophyte.
Reproductive Dissimilarity between Sporophyte and Gametophyte: The sporophyte is diploid, multicellular generation which produces spores by meiosis. The spores develop into gametophyte. The gametophyte is haploid, multicellular generation which produces gametes by mitosis. The gametes develop into sporophyte.

Q 39. What is seed? Why is the seed a crucial adaptation to terrestrial life?
Ans. Seed: Technically a seed may be defined as a fertilized ovule. An ovule is an integumented indehiscent megasporangium. Integuments are specialized protective coverings around megasporangium which vary in number.
Seed a Crucial Adaption to Terrestrial Life: The seed offers maximum degree of protection to a developing embryo under the unfavorable terrestrial environment. The development and evolution of seed habit was a great success and a giant leap which ultimately enabled plants to colonize land permanently.

Written By: Asad Hussain

Tuesday, 12 May 2015

Intermediate FSc FA ICS English XI Synonyms A Visit to a Small Planet

            Intermediate FSc FA ICS English XI Synonyms

                            A Visit to a Small Planet

Luminous:                      bright, radiant, illuminated
Arcs:                              bent, angled, curved
Dissolves:                     disappears
Comfortably:                  luxuriously, softly
Balanced:                       adjusted, symmetrical
Expensively:                  dearly, costly
Decorated:                     adorned, embellishment, ornamented
Homely:                           plain, simple, ordinary, everyday, natural
Concluding:                     ending, closing, winding up
Broadcast:                      transmission, telecast
Unctuous:                        glib, honey-tongued, flattering
Resonant:                       vibrant
Bored:                             tiresome, tedious, dull
Vague:                             absent-minded, silly, unintelligent
Passively:                        indifferently, inertly, latently
Lively:                             cheerful, agile, nimble, spirited, active, energetic
Fidgets:                            twitches, moves, restlessly, frets, flaps
Irresponsible:                   careless, thoughtless, reckless
Conjecture:                       guess, hypothesis, judgment, supposition, prediction
Meteor:                             a shooting star, a comet
Orbit:                                 circle, sphere, rotation, path
Secret:                                confidential, private, hidden
Lunatic:                              mad, insane, absurd, senseless
Suggested:                          proposed, recommended, opined 
Doubtful:                            unsure, uncertain
Capable:                             complement, able, qualified
Exact:                                 precise, accurate
Winds up:                           ends, concludes

Homestead:                        a farmhouse

Pulse beat:                          palpitate, throb, thump, pulse

Wearily:                              tiredly, exhaustively

Heartiness:                         cordiality, warmth, friendliness, sociability

Flattering:                           boosting, praising, welcoming

Starve:                               die of hunger

Virtue:                                goodness, merit, ethics

Get up and go:                    ambition, strength, resolution efficiency, spirit

Precisely:                            accurately

Serpent:                              snake

Ungrateful:                          UN-thankful, rude, impolite

Deadly:                               mortal, fatal, lethal, harmful, dangerous

Stand by:                            back up, support, favour, confirm

Headache:                          trouble, vexation, inconvenience

Reason:                              use logic on, argue with

Miss Know it all:                genius, mastermind, intellectual

Eluded:                              evaded, escaped, avoided

Ambitious:                         enterprising, eager, desirous

Make his mark:                 prosper, make good, succeed

Breathlessly:                      pantingly, gaspingly

Apparently:                       seemingly, manifestly

Odds:                               probabilities, chances

Cellar:                              storeroom, basement

Optical:                            pertaining to sight, optometric

Illusion:                             deception, delusion, misconception, misjudgement

Mass:                               large-scaled, popular, widespread

Hysteria:                           frenzy, fit of agitation, fit of madness, loos of control

Wide eyed:                       amazed, taken aback, astonished, stunned

Swallows:                         accepts, believes, trusts

Blazing:                            burning, flaming, flaring
Ominously:                       threateningly, alarmingly
Creature:                         person, fellow, human being
Monster:                         devil, evil, giant, ghost, mythical creature
Mild:                               tender, amiable, sense, gentle
Side whiskers:                 side burns
Costume:                        dress, outfit, robes, garments, clothes
Trifle:                              a little, bit, to some extent
Tired:                              fatigued, drained, worn out, exhausted
Collect:                           gather, muster, assemble
Accent:                           intonation, pronunciation, articulation
Evasively:                        indirectly, misleadingly
Publicity:                         promotion, advertising, public notice
Stunt:                              trick, display
Consent:                         acceptance, assent, willingness
Terribly:                          extremely, dreadfully, awfully
Pick up:                          sense, perceive, get to know
Torn:                              troubled, agitated, upset, alarmed
Extraordinary:                exceptional, unusual, peculiar
Development:                growth, progress
Civilization:                    advancement, progress, development
Blandly:                         in a hushed / murmured manner
Patronizing:                   snobbish, proud
Endearing:                     pleasurable, captivating, engaging, dear
Primitive:                       ancient, old, antique
Traits:                           features, characteristics, qualities, attributes 
Vigorous:                      strong, energetic, dynamic, active, animated
Troops:                         army, military, soldiers, armed person
Joker:                           clown, comic, comedian, funny person
Flying saucer:               spaceship
Feathers:                      plum, crest, tuft
Oblige:                         render a service, help, assist do one a favour
Fragile:                         delicate, infirm, frail, weak
Spy:                             detective, secret agent, enemy agent
Hostile:                         antagonistic, opposed
Alien:                            outsider, stranger, nonnative, foreigner
Heavily:                        strongly, severely, violently
Elliptical:                       oval, curved, egg-shaped
Diameter:                      breadth, width, thickness
Instruments:                   tools, devices
Theory:                         mechanism, system, scheme
Twirls:                           spins, twists, rotates, whirls
Censorship:                   Concealment, suppression, confinement
Martial:                         concerning, military / armed forces / army
Hunch:                          idea, intuition, feeling
Advanced:                    highly developed, modern
Bitterly:                         coldly, spitefully, angrily
Leak out:                      seep, flow out, run off
Intergalactic:                 occurring between galaxies
Stuff:                            information, data, facts
Imposter:                     fraud, cheater, rogue,deceiver
Mechanically:               automatically, casually, unconsciously
Reservation:                 territory, tract, area, preserve
Crisis:                           issue, affair, difficulty
Exciting:                        vexing, provoking, irritating
Dimension:                    direction, side
Security:                       safety, protection, defense
Preparatory:                 prior to, in preparation of
Invasion:                       attack, raid, assault
Lunatic:                        mad, stupid, fool, insane
Pinning:                        fixing, attaching, fastening
Startled:                       stunned, alarmed, shocked
Gad:                            roam, wander, travel around
Seldom:                       sometimes, scarcely, rarely
Impromptu:                 spontaneous, unprepared, improvised
Impulse:                     sudden desire, spur of the moment, whim, notion
Determine:                 settle, resolve, decide
Commentator:            reporter, broadcaster, newscaster
Hangs up:                   cut off
Far off:                       distant, far away
Hosts:                         landlord, landlady, housekeeper
Project:                      scheme, plan, program
Relatively:                 referable, belonging, near
Involved:                    complicated, knotty
Exciting:                     inspiring, stimulating, thrilling, sensational
Deliriously:                 hysterically, passionately, extremely
Dull:                           gloomy, dark, dismal
Divine:                        holy, lovely, admirable, glorious, majestic
Blow up:                     explode, blast, break open
Force field:                 ship, flying ship
Snarls:                        howls, growls
Giddy:                        dizzy, faint, unsteady
Awful:                         exceptional, thrilling, sensational
Intoxicate:                  thrill, stupefy, inflame, excite, animate
Seethe:                       bubble, foam, boil
Unlikely:                     improbable, unconvincing, questionable
Sordid:                        shameful, foul, ignoble, disgraced
Purple:                        brilliant, splendid, superb, exceptional
Disposition:                settlement, control, disposal
Communication:         information transmission, contact
Unsupportable:           unbearable, intolerable, unendurable
Fears:                          apprehensions, doubts, agitation
Race:                           nation, people, ethnic group
Remotely:                   slightly, somewhat, a little
Perverse:                    awkward, unreasonable, unruly, stubborn
Accounting for:           answering for, accountability
Native:                        local, citizen, national, inhabitant
Grimly:                       fiercely, harshly, sternly, mercilessly.
Express:                     sole, explicit, obvious, clear
Reconnoitering:         surveying, investigating, examining, inspecting
Prior:                          before, until, preceding
Invasion:                    attack, raid, assault
Assumption:              supposition, belief, guess, presumption
Deny:                         negate, nullify, refute, turn down
Intend:                       aim, think of, plan
Establishing:             setting up, creating, forming
Peculiar to:                exclusive to, typical of, special to
Criticizing:                 censuring, finding fault with, disapproving
Approve:                   commend, favor, praise
Dominate:                 rule, govern, control, preside over, command
Ridiculous:                funny, foolish, absurd
Grabs:                       grasp, clutch, grip
Savage:                     ferocious, vicious, wild, brutal
Vibrating:                  banging, pounding
Wicked:                    bad, undisciplined, unruly, naughty

Written By: Asad Hussain