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Question Answers Related to Networking Management and Administration:

Question Answers Related to Networking Management and Administration:

Q: What is Access list and its types?
Access list are basically a set of commands, grouped together by a number or name that is used to filter traffic entering or leaving an interface. An access control list (ACL) is a table that tells a computer operating system which access rights each user has to a particular system object, such as a file directory or individual file. Each object has a security attribute that identifies its access control list.
Types of Access list:
Standard ACLs provides basic packet filtering in which match is based on only source IP address.The Basic Filtering process will be only carried through it.
Extended ACLs allows filtering not only on source address but also on destination addresses, protocol type and source and destination port numbers.There needed ACL's which the permit and deny of needed will be carried on this.

Q: Differentiate between SNMP V1, V2 and V3?
Ans: SNMPv1:
SNMPv1 was the first version of SNMP. Although it accomplished its goal of being an open, standard protocol, it was found to be lacking in key areas for certain applications. Later versions have addressed many of these problems.

SNMPv2c is a sub-version of SNMPv2. Its key advantage over previous versions is the Inform command. Unlike Traps, which are simply received by a manager, Informs are positively acknowledged with a response message. If a manager does not reply to an Inform, the SNMP agent will resend the Inform.
Other advantages include:
•    improved error handling
•    improved SET commands

SNMPv3 is the newest version of SNMP. Its primary feature is enhanced security.The "EngineID" Identifier in SNMPv3 uniquely identifies each SNMP entity. Conflicts can occur if two SNMP entities have duplicate Engine ID’s. The EngineID is used to generate the key for authenticated messages.

Q: Differentiate between Manager and Agent?
Ans: Manager: The manager sends a Get or GetNext to read a variable or variables and the agent's response contains the requested information if managed. The manager sends a Set to change a variable or variables and the agent's response confirms the change if allowed. The agent sends a Trap when a specific event occurs
Agent: The agent sends a Trap when a specific event occurs.

Q: Differentiate between MIB And SMI?
Ans: Management information base (MIB)
is a database used for managing the entities in a communications network. Most often associated with the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), the term is also used more generically in contexts such as in OSI/ISO Network management model. While intended to refer to the complete collection of management information available on an entity, it is often used to refer to a particular subset, more correctly referred to as MIB-module.

SMI: The Structure of Management Information defines precisely how managed objects are named and specifies their associated data-types. SMI is based on object definition language called Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1).

Q: What is Firewall? What are the available fireball in market?
In computing, a firewall is a network security system that controls the incoming and outgoing network traffic based on an applied rule set. A firewall typically establishes a barrier between a trusted, secure internal network and another network (e.g., the Internet) that is assumed not to be secure and trusted.
Type in market
Communication Information       Partial    Partial    Yes
Communication-derived State    No        Partial    Yes
Application-derived State          No           Yes     Yes
Information Manipulation           

Q: What is RFC?
A Request for Comments (RFC) is a publication of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the Internet Society, the principal technical development and standards-setting bodies for the Internet.
An RFC is authored by engineers and computer scientists in the form of a memorandum describing methods, behaviors, research, or innovations applicable to the working of the Internet and Internet-connected systems. It is submitted either for peer review or simply to convey new concepts, information, or (occasionally) engineering humor. The IETF adopts some of the proposals published as RFCs as Internet standards.

Q: What function is performed by the "Ping" monitoring tool?
Ans: Ping is used diagnostically to ensure that a host computer the user is trying to reach is actually operating. Ping works by sending an Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Echo Request to a specified interface on the network and waiting for a reply. Ping can be used for troubleshooting to test connectivity and determine response time.

Q: What is RMON monitoring tool?
Ans: Remote Monitoring (RMON) is a standard specification that facilitates the monitoring of network operational activities through the use of remote devices known as monitors or probes. RMON assists network administrators (NA) with efficient network infrastructure control and management.

Q: What is the difference between Public and private IP?
A Private IP address is one used within a local area network. You need one unique address for each machine in the network, and these should be in an approved range which is not accepted on the internet. A public address is the address your network is allocated on the internet to make it possible to connect to other locations. If you use a modem or router with one network cable connected computer, you would have one private address on the computer and one public address on the internet side of the connection.

Public IP address changes every time you log onto the computer, since you are paying for a basic internet service. since there are so many people using the service, each time they log on, they appear in a different place on the internet backbone, thus changing their location. However, if you pay for a dedicated internet service such as a static internet service, you will have a dedicated location on the internet backbone. all websites have this, if they didn't you wouldn't be able to find the page again, because it would move.

Q: What is the difference between share and security permission?
Ans: Share Permission:

Share permissions are the permissions you set for a folder when you share that folder. The share permissions determine the type of access others have to the shared folder across the network. There are three types of share permissions: Full Control, Change, and Read.   
Private Permission:
It hasn't been shared with anyone else besides the owner. Only the file owner and users with “Modify All Data” permission can find and view this file, unless it is in a private library, then only the file owner has access to it.

Q: Write the procedure for server and client to Remote disk access with NFS in Linus?
Ans: The Network File System protocol (NFS) is used when disks need to be shared between Linux servers. Basic configuration is fairly simple, and this chapter will explain all the essential steps.

1-Installing NFS:
RedHat Linux installs nfs by default, and also by default nfs is activated when the system boots. You can determine whether you have nfs installed using the RPM command in conjunction with the grep command to search for all installed nfs package

2-Configuring NFS on The Server:
Both the NFS server and NFS client have to have parts of the NFS package installed and running. The server needs rpcbind, nfs, and nfslock operational, as well as a correctly configured /etc/exports file

3-Starting NFS on the Server:
Configuring an NFS server is straightforward: Use the chkconfig command to configure the required nfs and RPC rpcbind daemons to start at boot. You also should activate NFS file locking to reduce the risk of corrupted data.

4-Starting NFS on the Client:
Three more steps easily configure NFS on the client.Use the chkconfig command to configure the required nfs and RPC rpcbind daemons to start at boot. Activate nfslock to lock the files and reduce the risk of corrupted data.

5-Accessing NFS Server Directories from the Client:
In most cases, users want their NFS directories to be permanently mounted. This requires an entry in the /etc/fstab file in addition to the creation of the mount point directory

6-Activating Modifications To The /etc/exports File:
You can force your system to re-read the /etc/exports file by restarting NFS. In a non production environment, this may cause disruptions when an exported directory suddenly disappears without prior notification to users. Here are some methods you can use to update and activate the file with the least amount of inconvenience to others.

Q: What is the purpose of Active Directory, User Administration, Domain Controller, Additional Domain Controller?
Ans: Active Directory:
Active Directory serves as a central location for network administration and security. It is responsible for authenticating and authorizing all users and computers within a network of Windows domain type, assigning and enforcing security policies for all computers in a network and installing or updating software on network computers.

User Administration: The primary purpose of user administration is to provide information that helps systems make this determination. The central piece of user information that the SAS environment requires is one external account ID for each user. The SAS environment uses its copy of these IDs to establish a unique SAS identity for each connecting user. All of a user's group memberships, role memberships, and permission assignments are ultimately tied to their SAS identity.

Domain Controller: Domain Controller(DC) is a server that responds to security authentication requests (logging in, checking permissions, etc.) within the Windows Server domain. A Domain is a concept introduced in Windows NT whereby a user may be granted access to a number of computer resources with the use of a single username and password combination.

Additional Domain Controller: These additional domain controllers exist to provide fault tolerance. If the PDC fails, then it can be replaced by a BDC. In such circumstances, an administrator promotes a BDC to be the new PDC. BDCs can also authenticate user logon requests - and take some of the authentication load from the PDC.

Written By: Asad Hussain: