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Thursday, 10 September 2015

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 11 Bioenergetics Definitions

 FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 11 Bioenergetics Definitions


Absorption spectrum:
The plot showing absorption of light of different wave lengths by a compound is called absorption spectrum.

Accessory pigments:
The pigments absorb light of different wavelength and broadens the spectrum are called accessory pigments.

Action spectrum:
The plot showing relative effectiveness of different wavelengths of light for photosynthesis is called action spectrum.

Aerobic respiration:
The respiration which occurs in the presence of oxygen is called aerobic respiration.

Anaerobic respiration:
The respiration which occurs in the absence of oxygen is called anaerobic respiration.

Cellular respiration:
The step by step breakdown of the C-chain molecules and the release of energy within the cell are called cellular respiration.

Chlorophyll:
Green pigment in leaves is called chlorophyll.

Compensation point:
The point where there is no net gas exchange between leaves and atmosphere at dawn and dusk is called compensation point. At this point rate of respiration becomes equal to rate of photosynthesis in plants.

Cyclic phosphorylation:
The returning back of the same excited electrons to the excited chlorophyll by producing a molecule of ATP it is called Calvin cycle. Or back and forth movement of electron generate ATP this is known as cyclic phosphorylation.

Cytochromes:
Cytochromes act as intermediate during the transport of electrons. These are the iron containing proteins.

Bioenergetics:
The quantitative study of energy relationship in the biological systems is called bioenergetics.

External respiration:
The exchange of respiratory gases between the organisms and its environment is called external respiration.

Glycolysis:
The breakdown of glucose up to formation of two molecules of Pyruvic acid is called glycolysis.

Grana:
The stacked columns of thlakoids are called grana.

Krebs cycle:
The series of chemical reactions which completed the oxidation of glucose is called Krebs cycle. It occurs in mitochondria.

Light:
Light is electromagnetic energy or radiations.

Non-cyclic phosphorylation:
The formation of ATP during non-cyclic flow of electrons is called non-cyclic phosphorylation.

Oxidation:
The addition of oxygen or removal of electron from a compound is called oxidation.

Oxidative phosphorylation:
The process by which energy released during oxidative reactions is stored in high energy phosphate bonds.

Oxidizing agent:
The compound, which has capability to remove electron from a compound is called oxidizing agent.

Phosphorylation:
The addition of phosphate groups to molecules. By this process ATP is formed.

Photo phosphorylation:
The synthesis of ATP due to light energy is called photo-phosphorylation.

Photolysis:
The splitting of water and release of oxygen during photosynthesis is called photolysis.

Photosynthesis:
Photosynthesis is a process in which energy poor inorganic oxidized compounds of carbon CO2 and hydrogen water H2O are reduced to energy rich carbohydrates (sugar, glucose) by using light energy.

Photosystem:
Photosynthetic pigments are organized into cluster called photosystem.

Pigment:
The substances which absorb visible light (380 - 750 nm wave length) are called pigments.

Reducing agent:
The compound, which has capability to add electron in  a compound is called reducing agent.

Reduction:
The addition of electron or hydrogen into compound is called reduction.

Respiration:
The breakdown of complex carbon compounds and the release of maximum usable energy with in the cell is called respiration.

Thylakoids:
The thylakoids are set of interconnected flat disc like sacs.

Transport chain:
The transfer of electron through a series of respiratory chain from NADH to oxygen is called electron transport chain.

Written By: Asad Hussain

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