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Thursday, 29 October 2015

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XII Short Questions Mustafa Kamal

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XII Short Questions Mustafa Kamal

Question 1: Who is the writer of the essay “Mustafa Kamal”?
Answer:
Wilfred F. Castle is the writer of the essay “Mustafa Kamal”.
 
Question 2: What was the attitude of the Turkish government towards the allies after world world I?
Answer:
Pasha and old liberals and old liberals wanted to from a government in collaboration with the allies.   
 
Question 3: Why was Mustafa Kamal sent to Antolia?
Answer:
Mustafa Kamal was sent to Anatolia to put down the rebels who were not obeying Pasha.
 
Question 4: What was the reaction of the Turkish patriots to the intentions of the allies to partition the Ottoman Empire?
Answer:
They planned to rage a war against the Greeks through guerillas. They wanted to build up to the national army and temporary government in Anatolia.
 
Question 5: Writer a note on Mustafa Kamal activities in Anatolia?
Answer:
Mustafa Kamal planned to rage a war against the Greeks through guerillas. He wanted to build up the national army and temporary government in Antolia.
 
Question 6: Why did Mehmet order Mustafa Kamal to return to Constantinople?
Answer:
Mehmet felt that he was working against the interest of his government. So he ordered him to come back at once.
 
Question 7: What was Mustafa Kamal's reply?
Answer:
In reply to the order of the sultan of turkey, Mustafa Kamal said. “ I shall stay in Anatoliauntil the nation has won its independence”.
 
Question 8: What was decided by the Grand Turkish National Assembly at the end of war?
Answer:
The Grand National Assembly of Turkey decided by the unanimous vote to abolish the Sultanate in Turkey.
 
Question 9: Why did Mustafa simply the Turkish language?
Answer:
The Turkish language had many Arabic and Persian words. It was difficult to learn. Mustafa Kamal simplified the Turkish language to make it simple. Easy and modern.
 
Question 10: What were Mustafa views about women of the country?
Answer:
Mustafa was of the opinion that woman should have equal rights. They should be educated. They should bye encouraged to take part in nation progress.
 
Question 11: What were Mustafa Kamal economic reforms?
Answer:
For economic reform, new roads and railways were constructed. New features were opened. He encouraged heavy industry. They banking system was organized. He did all this without borrowing from outside.
 
Question 12: What were his social reforms in the country?
Answer:
Mustafa Kamal finished old title. The people used to wear Fez: now wearing of hat was compulsory. Veil was also abolished. Women were allowed to get higher education.
 
Question 13: What happened on 23rd of April, 1920?
Answer:
On 23rd April, 1920, the revolutionary Turkish Grand Assembly met and elected Mustafa Kamal as the first president of Turkey.
 
Question 14: Why October 1923 I famous in the history of the world?
Answer:
The 29 October 1923 is famous in the history of the world because on that day the Ottoman Empire was wiped from history and a new Turkish Republic was established.

Written by: Asad Hussain & Muhammad Jawad

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XII Short Questions Louis Pasteur

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XII Short Questions Louis Pasteur

Question 1: Who is the writer of the essay ‘Louis Pasteur”?
Answer:
Margaret Avery is the writer is the essay” Louis Pasteur.
 
Question 2: Describe the early life of Pasteur?
Answer:
Pasteur belonged to a humble family. He lived in a village from where he got early education. Then he moved to city and became a famous scientist in history.
 
Question 3: Give some instances of Pasteur?
Answer:
Pasteur was a great patriot. He offered himself to serve in the army. He worked for France in the field for science. He saved the wine and silk industry of France. Once. He donated all his savings t the welfare of France.
 
Question 4: What do you men by ‘spontaneous generation?
Answer:
Spontaneous generation means that things change without the external influence.
 
Question 5: How did Pasteur prove that” spontaneous generation?
Answer:
Pasteur proved that things change because of bacteria. Things do not change without external influence.
 
Question 6: What help did Pasteur render in curing the “silkworm” disease in his country?
Answer:
Pasteur advised the readers of silkworm to avoid over- crowding’ over-heating and unhealthy conditions because these things weakened them to get disease.
 
Question 7: How did Pasteur discover the treatment of the cattle disease, Anthrax?
Answer:
Pasteur cultivated the germs in such a way that they were weakened. When these germs were i8noculated into the healthy animals, they produced a mild type of illness. This protects them from different diseases.
 
Question 8: Who did Pasteur discover the method of making vaccines?
Answer:
Pasteur cultivated the germ in such a way that they were weakened. When these germs were inoculated into the healthy animals, they produced a mild type of illness. This protects them from different diseases.
 
Question 9: Give and account of Pasteur’s treatment of hydrophobia?
Answer:
The first human disease for which Pasteur used inoculation was hydrophobia or Rabies. It was a horrible disease caused by the bite of a “Mad” dog.
 
Question 10: How did Pasteur show the way to other scientists?
Answer:
Pasteur abolished superstitions about diseases. Diseases and death was mysterious thing. He found out their causes and brought them to the world of facts. 

Written by: Asad Hussain & Muhammad Jawad

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XII Short Questions Sir Alexander Fleming

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XII Short Questions Sir Alexander Fleming

Question 1: Who is the writer of the essay Sir Alexander Fleming?
Answer:
Patrick pringle is the writer of the essay ‘Sir Alexander Fleming.
 
Question 2: What are antiseptics?
Answer:
Germs can be killed or destroyed or poisoned by using some chemicals known as antiseptics.
 
Question 3: What is the antiseptics method?
Answer:
Anti-septic are the substances when are entered the body they kill the germs of diseases theta are harmful for the body.
 
Question 4: What was the chief defect of antiseptic method?
Answer:
The chief defect of anti-septic method was that it not only destroyed the germs but also the white blood cells of body, which are very important in the human body.
 
Question 5: What part is played by the white cells in the blood of a human body?
Answer:
The white blood cells of the body are to protect the body against disease.
 
Question 6: Describe how Fleming discovered penicillin?
Answer:
In 1922, Fleming was suffering from catarrh. He examined his own nasal secretions. He found a natural antiseptic produced by the body itself.
 
Question 7: What was aseptic method?
Answer:
The method in which heat was used to destroy the germs of dise4eases was known as aseptic method
 
Question 8: In what respect is penicillin better than the chemical antiseptics?
Answer:
Penicillin is better than other chemical antiseptics as it destroys only germs of disease and is harmless to the white cells of the blood.
 
Question 9: Was Fleming proud of his discovery?
Answer:
Fleming was humble and not proud of his discovery. He said, “Nature makes penicillin, I just found it”.
 
Question 10: Why couldn’t penicillin have been discovered in the research laboratories of America?
Answer:
Penicillin could not have been discovered in laboratories of America as these were very neat, clean and covered from all sides and spore of penicillin could not reach inside them.
 
Question 11: Fleming’s achievement paved the way for other discoveries in the medical field. What are they?
Answer:
Penicillin had many advantages. Firstly, it was a blessing in the world of medicine. Secondly, it had stimulated other scientist to discover new antibiotics.

Written by: Asad Hussain & Muhammad Jawad

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XII Short Questions Hitch Hiking Across the Sahara

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XII Short Questions Hitch Hiking Across the Sahara

Question 1: Who is the writer of Hitch-Hiking across the Sahara”?
Answer:
G.F. Lamb is the writer of the essay ‘Hitch-Hiking Across the Sahara’.
 
Question 2: Give an idea of the size of the Sahara. How does it compare with England?
Answer:
The Sahara is a very vast desert in Africa. It is many times the size of greet Britain.England is very small if compared with this desert.
 
Question 3: What had Christopher‘s foster mother to do with his desire to see distant places?
Answer:
In his childhood, Christopher’s foster mother used to threaten him to send him to Timbuktu (a city in Sahara) if he got naughty. The threat instead of alarming him aroused a keen desire in him to visit distant places of Sahara.
 
Question 4: How did he manage to get a seat in the weapon carrier?
Answer:
He requested the French in charge of the weapon carrier to allow him to travel with them. He produced a permit from Ministry of war that he could go to French troops for his article.
 
Question 5: What was the most noticeable feature of the desert city named Ghardaia?
Answer:
Ghardaia was a typical desert city. Flies were in plenty there. Its flies were even more numerous and stickier than anywhere else. Almost everything there was covered with flies.
 
Question 6: How did they manage to drive the heavy truck in the trackless desert with its soft sand?
Answer:
When the truck stuck into the sand, they took out steel mesh and placed them together to make a runway for the truck on the sand. In this way, they crossed the desert with its soft sand.
 
Question 7: What did the driver tell Christopher about three Englishmen who had attempted to cross the desert?
Answer:
The driver told the story to him about three English people who tried to cross the part of the desert in a car. Their car was stuck in a sand dune and thus they died of thirst.
 
Question 8: Give an account of the little town, named El Golea, and compare it with In Salah.
Answer:
El Golea was a true oasis with plenty of water. In El Golea, Christopher took bath in a little pool. The pool was shaded by palm-trees. He also enjoyed lying on the cool grass beside the pool. On the other hand, In Salah was fighting a battle for its survival. The sand was encroaching it.
 
Question 9: What do you know of Professor Claude Balanguernon? How did he save the hero’s life towards the end of hitch-hike?
Answer:
Professor Claude Balanguernon was a Frenchman who devoted his life to educate the Taureg people. He was well-aware of the features and routes of the Sahara. He saved Christopher’ life by helping him in time when he missed his route and might die of thirst.
 
Question 10: Describe the events leading to the killing of a camel? What sort of water did they get from its stomach?
Answer:
When they had dire shortage of water and they might die of thirst, they killed a camel. They obtained a tick yellowish green liquid from its stomach and drank that to save their lives.
 
Question 11: Describe the journey through ‘The land of Thirst and death’.
Answer:
The area where they killed a camel for water was known as “The land of Thirst and Death”. It was notorious for sand storms and dry wells of water. They also saw a snake and vultures there.
 
Question 12: How much distance did Christopher cover to reach his destination?        
Answer:
He crossed 3200 kilometers of desert and reached his destination Timbuktu.

Written by: Asad Hussain & Muhammad Jawad

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XII Short Questions First Year at Harrow

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XII Short Questions First Year at Harrow

Question 1: Who is the writer of ‘First year at Harrow”?
Answer:
Sir Winston Churchill is the author of the essay “First year at Harrow.
 
Question 2: The writer says that the examiners ask question which students cannot answer and not those which they can answer. Is the complaint just?
Answer:
To some extent, this complaint is true but mostly it does not happen. It is the complaint of dull students. The hardworking can answer any question asked in the exam.
 
Question 3: What sort of questions is asked by your examiners?
Answer:
Our examiners ask easy as well as difficult questions in the examinations. They ask such questions which can distinguish a diligent student from an ordinary one.
 
Question 4: Why did not Churchill do well in examinations?
Answer:
He liked poetry and essay writing but the examiners were interested in Latin and Mathematics. He did not know the answers of the questions. So he could not do well in the examination.
 
Question 5: How did he do his Latin paper?
Answer:
He did his Latin paper badly. He just wrote his name, question ‘1’ and after much reflection put a bracket round it thus (1). Then, unknowingly, he put a blot and many smudges on the paper.
 
Question 6: Churchill was taught English at Harrow and not Latin and Greek. Was it a gain or loss?
Answer:
Churchill was taught English at Harrow and not Latin and Greek it was a gain for him. This knowledge proved very useful for him in future to earn his livelihood and a promising career.
 
Question 7: What good did his three years stay at Harrow do him?
Answer:
His three stay at Harrow was very important for Churchill.Here he learnt the basic rules of English. This knowledge proved very useful for him in future to earn his livelihood and a promising career.
 
Question 8: In after years how did the knowledge of English stand him in good stead?
Answer:
In after years, the knowledge of English proved very useful for him in his practical life.By knowing his national language, he faced no difficulty in the daily affairs of life. He became a successful politician.
 
Question 9: What happened to boys who had learnt Latin and Greek?
Answer:
Those boys who had learnt Latin and Greek and had won many prizes. They had to learn English again to earn their livelihood.
 
Question 10: What is Churchill’s advice regarding learning English?
Answer:
His advice is that all English boys should learn English first. They should get it into their bones. Later on, clever ones may learn Latin as an honor and Greek as a treat.
 
Question 11: Who was Mr. Welldon?
Answer:
Mr. Welldon was the head of Harrow. He was an intelligent man. He judged the hidden qualities in Churchill and granted him admission. Churchill had great regards for him.
 
Question 12: Who was Mr. Somervell and how did he teach English?
Answer:
Mr. Somervell was a delightful teacher of English at Harrow. He had his own method of teaching. He taught English by means of red, blue , black and green inks.

Written by: Asad Hussain & Muhammad Jawad

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XII Short Questions The Jewel of the World

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XII Short Questions The Jewel of the World

Question 1: Give an account of the early career of Abd-al-Rehman I, his dramatic escape and his adventures in Africa?
Answer:
In 750, after the defeat of the Umayyad family, once when he was in Bedouin camp, the Abbasid soldiers came to kill him and his brother, he saved his life by diving into the river and swam away from the reach of the Abbasid army. He bore much hardship and reached Spain.
 
Question 2: How did Abd-al-Rehman deal with the governor appointed by the Abbasid caliph to contest his rule?
Answer:
Abd-al-Rehman killed the caliph, preserved his head in salt and camphor, wrapped in back flag and presented it to the Abbasid caliph with letter of appointment.    
 
Question 3: What did the Abbasid caliph say on receiving the head of his governor?
Answer:
On receiving the head of his governor, he was filled with horror and said “Thanks be to Allah for having placed the sea between us and such a foe”
 
Question 4: What did Abd-al-Rehman do to make himself strong and to beautify his capital?
Answer:
To make himself strong, he trained a well disciplined army of 40,000 of more Berbers and to beautify his capital,. he introduced a system of pure water. He built up a palace for himself and a garden by its sides. He founded the great most of Cordova.
 
Question 5: Give an account of the all-round progress made by the Arabs under Abd-al-Rehman III?
Answer:
During his reign, weaving, leather making, silk, glass ware, brass work and the art of other metals flourished in Spain. Cordova became one of the most cultured city. It had 70 libraries and number of books. He enlarged the university of Cordova and established a library with collection of 4, 00,000 books.
 
Question 6: What did Al- Hakam do to promote learning and scholarship in his kingdom?
Answer:
Al- Hakam was the successor of Abd- al-Rehman III, and was a learned man. He patronized learning. He enlarge the university of Cordova and established a library with a collection of 4, 00,000 books.
 
Question 7: Give the early physical appearance of Abd-al-Rehman I?
Answer:
He was a striking young man of 20, tall lean, with sharp aquiline features and red hair .he was an able man with strong will power.
 
Question 8: Describe the royal palace, Al-Zahra?
Answer:
The royal palace, Al-Zahra was the most beautiful palace in the world. Imported marbles and other material were used in its construction. It had 400 rooms and apartments. Thousands of slaves and body-guards of “Amir” lived there.
 
Question 9: Why was “Generalife” ( Jannat-al-arif) so famous?
Answer:
The word “Generalife” comes from the Arabic word “ Jannat-al-arif”, which means “the inspector’s paradise”. It was one of the best known gardens of Spain. It was famous because o its wide shades, waterfalls and soft breeze. It was in the form of an amphitheatre and was irrigated by many streams.

Written by: Asad Hussain & Muhammad Jawad

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XII Short Questions Hunger and Population Explosion

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XII Short Questions Hunger and Population Explosion

Question 1: What does hunger mean on large scale as viewed by the author?
Answer:
Hunger does not mean missing one meal. It means never having enough to eat . after one meal there is no surety of another meal.
 
Question 2: Describe some great famines of the past.
Answer:
The Nile remained dry for seven years and the Egyptians had to face the famine. Likewise, China and England faced great famines and millions of people died in Russia because of famine in 1921. A worst famine of the century struck India in 1964-65.
 
Question 3: How do famines occur?
Answer:
Some of the causes of famines are over population, failure of crops, shortage of food and lack of rains. If the food available is not enough for the people to eat there may spread a famine. In such cases people starve to death.
 
Question 4: What is the main reason for population increase today?
Answer:
The main reason foe population increase is the difference between birth-rate and death-rate. The fatal diseases have been controlled. Due to this the death-rate has been reduced. As a result, the population is increasing rapidly..
 
Question 5: What is meant by birth-rate and death-rate and how do they affect the population of a country?
Answer:
Birth-rate means the number of births per 1000 population while death rate means the number of deaths per 1000 population.The main reason of population increase is the difference between birth-rate and death- rate.
 
Question 6: What have public-health measures to do with increase in population?
Answer:
Public health measures have controlled epidemics and fatal diseases. The discovery of the treatment of many diseases has decreased the death rate. When death rate decreases, population increases
 
Question 7: Account for the high birth-rate in under-developed countries?
Answer:
In underdeveloped countries , the birth rate is very high and most of such countries are over populated. These countries are unable to provide even basic facilities to their people.  The basic reason of high birth rate is lack of education.
 
Question 8: Why is birth rate not so high in the more advanced countries?
Answer:
The people of advanced countries are wise , intelligent, and educated. They are aware of the danger of over population. Therefore, the birth rate is not so high in these countries.
 
Question 9: Give a brief account of the poor economic conditions prevailing in under-developed countries.
Answer:
Poverty, illiteracy and diseases are the common factors in under-developed countries. Such countries have poor economy because they depend on the export of raw material. The have no factories, no proper communication, public health and education system. 

Written by: Asad Hussain & Muhammad Jawad

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XII Short Questions China's Way to Progress

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XII Short Questions China's Way to Progress

Question 1: Why has the world changed its attitude towards china?
Answer:
The world has changed its attitude towards China because of its great progress. After independence in 1949, China made immense progress in social, agricultural and industrial fields.        
 
Question 2: Discuss Chinese agriculture system?
Answer:
In China, agricultural land has been divided into small sectors known as communes. These communes are further divided into production brigades. The Chinese still carry on their traditional labour along with modern agricultural machinery. 
 
Question 3: How does China rely on its own resources?
Answer:
China relies on its own resources by using all sorts of products and machines prepared in China. Such products and machine are easily available. They are cheaper than foreign machines.
 
Question 4: Describe a day in the life of a Chinese student?
Answer:
Je Wen Siure presents the students in China. She gets up early in the morning, does some domestic chores, takes breakfast and goes to the school at 8. After 11 am, she comes back home takes her lunch and goes back to the school. She . and revises his lesson. After 4 o clock he takes rest reads the news-paper and enjoys the radio.
 
Question 5: Write a note on the Chinese women?
Answer:
Chinese women are hard working. They lack femininity. They do not use beauty products. They enjoy many social security benefits. They enjoy free hospitalization and medical facilities.
 
Question 6: What are the social security benefits provided to the Chinese workers?
Answer:
Workers in China enjoy complete social security benefits. It means the state is responsible for their comforts and needs in society. They are provided housing and medical facilities. They enjoy easy terms of service in factories and the facility of assistance schemes.
 
Question 7: “It is the people and not the things that are decisive” Discuss.
Answer:
According to the writer, there are two worlds: one is the world of facts and figures and the other is the world of faith. Mao the Chinese leader believed that number of people or economic facts and figures does not count, people themselves are important if they have the faith for the benefit of the people.
 
Question 8: “The heart of the matter is the need to root out selfishness” Discuss.
Answer:
According to this statement, everyone should work for the betterment of others. The secret of China’s progress lies in this principle. They work for the benefits of all.

Written by: Asad Hussain & Muhammad Jawad

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XII Short Questions My Financial Career

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XII Short Questions My Financial Career

Question 1: What light do the following expressions throw on Leacock's state of mind when he entered the bank? Looked timidly round’ Shambled in?
Answer:
These expressions reflect the confused state of writer’s mind. He was fully confused and could not express his matter properly.
 
Question 2: Why did the manager come to think that Leacock had an awful secret to reveal?
Answer:
The manager came to think that Leacock had an awful secret to reveal because he insisted to meet manager alone.
 
Question 3: What was the attitude of the manager towards Leacock on learning that he only wished to deposit 56 dollars in the bank?
Answer:
When the manager learns the actual amount of the money, he became angry. His attitude was rude and unkind. He asked him to go to the accountant.
 
Question 4: What other blunders did Leacock commit after leaving the manager’s office?
Answer:
After leaving the manager’s office, Leacock made a number of blunders. First, he stepped into an iron safe. Then he wrote fifty six instead of six on the cheque. Then instead of admitting his mistake, he pretended to be angry on being insulted by someone.
 
Question 5: After this misadventure in the bank where did Leacock keep his money?
Answer:
After this misadventure, kept cash money in his trousers pocket and savings in silver dollars in socks.
 
Question 6: Give as many examples as you can to show that Leacock was feeling completely lost in the bank all the time he was there?
Answer:
Leacock was completely lost in the bank. He made many mistakes there. First, he stepped into an iron safe. Then he wrote fifty six instead of six on the cheque. Then instead of admitting his mistake, he pretended to be angry on being insulted by someone.
 
Question 7: How much was the writer’s salary raised?
Answer:
The writer’s salary was raised to 50 dollars per month. He wanted to save it for his future use. Therefore, he decided to keep it in the bank.
 
Question 8: Who was Mr. Montogomery?
Answer:
  Mr. Montogomery was the accountant in the bank. He was a tall, cool devil. The very sight of him rattled the writer.
 
Question 9: What was the reaction of the bank staff when he author rushed out of the bank?
Answer:
When the author rushed out of the bank, the bank staff made a roar of laughter at his blunders. 
 
Question 10: Why did people think he was some invalid millionaire?
Answer:
They thought him some invalid millionaire because some body gave him a Cheque book, and some one told him how to write it. 

Written by: Asad Hussain & Muhammad Jawad

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XII Short Questions The Man who was a Hospital

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XII Short Questions The Man who was a Hospital

Question 1: How did Jerome K. Jerome come to suspect that his liver was out of order?
Answer:
He came to suspect so after reading a patent liver-pill circular and concluded that his liver was out of order.
 
Question 2: What was the disease he discovered he didn’t have?
Answer:
He discovered that he did not have ‘housemaid’s Knee’. He was much disappointed for not having it.
 
Question 3: Was he pleased to find he didn’t have it?
Answer:
No, he rather felt hurt for not having it. He was mush disappointed at his finding.
 
Question 4: What was his first reaction?
Answer:
He was frozen with horror that he was the patient of all the diseases. He thought that he would be an interesting case from medical point of view.
 
Question 5: Why should he be an acquisition to the medical class?
Answer:
He should be an acquisition to the medical class because students would have no need to walk around the hospital to know about different diseases as he was a hospital himself.
 
Question 6: Describe his visit to the medical man?
Answer:
When he went to the doctor he told him all about his diseases. The doctor at once understand the real matter. He checked him completely. He hit over his chest and head and then gave him a prescription.
 
Question 7: He thought he was doing the doctor good turn by going to him .why?
Answer:
He thought so because the doctor was going to get more practice out of him than seventeen hundred common patients. Therefore, he thought he was doing the doctor good turn by going to him.
 
Question 8: What was the prescription given to him by the doctor?
Answer:
The  prescription ran:
  • “11 lb beef steak, every 6 hours.
  • 10 miles walk every morning, 
  • Bed at 11 sharp every night. 
  • And don’t stuff your head with things. You don’t understand”.

Question 9: Describe his visit to the chemist?
Answer:
He went to chemist gave him the prescription. The chemist replied if he had a cooperative store and a family hotel combined he would have been able to oblige him.
 
Question 10: What is the significance of the doctor’s advice: don’t stuff your head with things you don’t understand?
Answer:
This is a very important advice. Generally, people start to think about those things for which they have no concern. As a result, they draw false conclusion and get worried. The writer followed the advice and become healthy.
 
Question 11: How had the writer walked into the reading room of the British Museum and how did he returned?
Answer:
The writer walked into the reading room as a happy and healthy man. But he returned as a despaired patient.
 
Question 12: Had the heart of Jerome really stopped beating?
Answer:
No, in fact he was confused. When he did not feel his heart beating in his chest, he patted himself all over his front. He felt his pulse which was very fast.
 
Question 13: Why did the writer go to the British Museum?
Answer:
He went to the British Museum to read the treatment of hay fever.

Written by: Asad Hussain & Muhammad Jawad

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XII Short Questions On Destroying Books

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XII Short Questions On Destroying Books

Question 1: What sorts of books were presented by the British public to soldiers?
Answer:
Most of the books sent to soldiers were ordinary and suitable. But they were also presented oddest books such as twenty years old magazine, guides to lake district and back numbers of Whitaker’s almanac.
 
Question 2: Was it interest of soldiers that prompted their action, it was wish to get rid of the useless books?       
Answer:
No, it was not the interest of soldiers. In fact, they want to get rid of their old and useless books. So they sent them to the soldiers.
 
Question 3: Why should bad books be destroyed?
Answer:
Bad books should be destroyed so that there should be space for good and new books in the shelves. Moreover, it saves one’s heir from the trouble of sorting them out and storing them.
 
Question 4: Why is it difficult to destroy books?
Answer:
It is difficult to destroy books because they die hard. We do not have proper place to burn them. They are like cats and it is difficult to find a scaffold for them.
 
Question 5: Why could not the author burn the unwanted books?
Answer:
The author could not burn the unwanted books because he had no cooking range and he could not burn them on gas cooker.
 
Question 6: How did he decide to get rid of them?
Answer:
He decided to get rid of them by throwing them into the river. He stuffed them into a sack and went to the river to throw them.
 
Question 7: Describe the authors midnight venture to throw the books in the river and the suspicion which his action were likely to arouse?
Answer:
At midnight, the author stuffed the books in a sack. He shouldered them and went to fling them into the river. He was terribly frightened at the sight of a policeman and a stranger. At last, he threw the books into the river after many difficulties.      
 
Question 8: How did he muster up courage at last to fling them into the river?
Answer:
The writer was hesitant to throw them. Then he abused himself for his cowardice. At last, he mustered up courage and threw the sack into the river.
 
Question 9: Did he come to have a feeling for those books once he had got rid of them?
Answer:
He was sad after throwing the books. He thought that poor books met a fate worse than they deserve.
 
Question 10: What did the writer think about the splash?
Answer:
The writer thought that people would catch him. They would think that he had thrown a baby into the river. Therefore, he was afraid of the splash of the sack.
 
Question 11: Give the names of the books that the writer threw into the river?
Answer:
The names of the books are Odes to Diana, Sonnets to Ethel, Dramas on Love of Lancelot and Stanzas on a first Glimpse of Venice.
 
Question 12: What did the writer think when he saw the policeman on the way?
Answer:
When he saw a policeman on the way, he became afraid. He thought that he would consider him a thief and arrest him. But the policeman did not take any notice of him.

Written by: Asad Hussain & Muhammad Jawad

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XII Short Questions End of Term

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XII Short Questions End of Term

Question 1: What was Daiches attitude towards the week end as a school boy? Why did he long for it?      
Answer:
As a school boy, he felt joy at the arrival of week-end. He walked home like an escaped prisoner. He longed for it to get rid of daily burden of school.
Question 2: What was his general view of school life?
Answer:
He was a good student and often enjoyed the actual class room work. School life was full of labour and tough competitions. Teachers gave them a lot of home work. This daily grind of school made him long for holidays.
Question 3: He liked holidays for their freedom- freedom for what?
Answer:
He liked holidays for their freedom-freedom from waking up early in the morning, from large number of classes and from grind of routine school work.
Question 4: How did he spend his summer holidays?
Answer:
The summer holidays were a long period of bliss. He spent his summer vacation in his village with his grand parents. He played cricket in July sunshine; he enjoyed these holidays very much.
Question 5: Wishes don’t come true in this life, writes Daiches. What are the things he longed for but could not have?
Answer:
He wished to get a tricycle in his early childhood and later a bicycle. He wished to get ice-cream and sweet free of cost. His these wishes did not come true.
Question 6: What did he do with his pocket money?
Answer:
He kept his savings in money-box because he was not allowed to spend his pocket-money.
Question 7: Why was the Friday morning rose colored for the writer?
Answer:
Friday morning was positively rose colored because it was a week end. Moreover, they were going to have two consecutive holidays to enjoy themselves.
Question 8: What were unexpected respites?    
Answer:
Unexpected respites mean sudden dismissal of school before usual time due to some crises, celebration and football match. But these were few and far between.
Question 9: When did he buy his first bicycle?
Answer:
He bought his first bicycle at the age of 21 with the prize money he won at Edinburgh University.
Question 10: What was the most frightening day of the week for Daiches?
Answer:
Monday was the most frightening day of the week for Daiches. Waking up on Monday morning was a dismal experience for the writer.
Question 11: What were the feelings of the writer on Saturday and Sunday?
Answer:
Saturday night had the charm for the holiday between it and the Monday morning. But Sunday night was full of the threat of Monday morning. 

Written by: Asad Hussain & Muhammad Jawad

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XII Short Questions Why Boys Fail in College

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XII Short Questions Why Boys Fail in College

Question 1: According to the author there are some boys who fail because they do not try. Who are they? Can we help them?
Answer:
They are those boys who do not have any aim in life. They do not try to pass and fail. They join college just for fun. They should be guided towards the aim of their life as a student.
 
Question 2: How do mistaken ambitions on the part of boys and their parents lead to the failure of the boys?
Answer:
Mistaken ambitions of the parents lead to the failure because the students do not take any interest in the subject chose by their parents. They stop hard work in their studies. As a result they fail.
 
Question 3: There are some boys who have done well at school but fail to make their mark at college. Who are they? Do you have such boys in college in your country?
Answer:
These are boys who are bright and intelligent but not hard working. They become over confidant and fail in college. Such boys could be found in the colleges of every country. Ours is no exception.
 
Question 4: How does financial pressure lead to the failure of students described in the lesson? Do you have similar cases in your country?
Answer:
Poor students have to do some job to meet their educational expenses. This dual exertion affects both their health and studies and so they fail. Yes, we do have such cases in our country.
 
Question 5: To what extent does the question of health lead to failure at college? How far can the college authorities with their medical officers help students in such cases?
Answer:
Both physical and mental health is very important factor for students. If a student is suffering from some disease, he can not concentrate on his studies. As a result, he fails.
 
Question 6: What place would you accord to sportsmen in college?
Answer:
The main purpose of college is to impart education. Sportsmen should be given respectable position in the college. But they should not be allowed to neglect their studies at any cost.
 
Question 7: There are some students who join college for the fun of it. Should they be allowed to stay?
Answer:
Students who join college for fun, they should not be allowed to stay. Because, they can spoil other students as well.
 
Question 8: Who are lazy bluffers? What should be done about them?
Answer:
Lazy bluffers are students who join college without any purpose. They should be left to the cold merciless world.
 
Question 9: What should be the role of college dean?
Answer:
The college dean should be like a doctor. He should diagnose the cause of failure among the students. In this way, he can save the boys from failure through foolishness, sickness and sin.
 
Question 10: Why is the proper cooperation needed between the teaching staff and the college doctor?
Answer:
It is necessary so that the boys are clinically examined regularly to maintain their physical and mental health.
 
Question 11: What are common diseases among college students?
Answer:
The common disease among college students are tuberculosis, bad tonsils, sleeping sickness, poor digestion and nervous forms of mental difficulties.
 
Question 12: What is the heartrending spectacle?
Answer:
To see boys undergoing transfusion of blood to get money for food and books is a heartrending spectacle.
 
Question 13: Can we help the student suffering from nervous habits?
Answer:
No, we can not help the students suffering from nervous habits. Nervous habits are not easy to uproot, they cannot be eradicated by anyone but the boy.

Written by: Asad Hussain & Muhammad Jawad

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XII Short Questions Using the Scientific Method

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XII Short Questions Using the Scientific Method

Question 1: How has the scientific method helped us in our fight against disease?
Answer:
The scientific method has helped us in knowing the causes of diseases and their prevention. It has also enabled us to make life saving drugs.
 
Question 2: Write a note on the better sanitary conditions available in our cities today and compare them with what they were like a hundred years ago?
Answer:
Today, our city streets are paved and well drained. They are cleaned regularly. Garbage and sewage is disposed properly. A hundred years ago, the streets were unpaved and poorly drained. Household garbage and other refuse were thrown in the streets. So, today sanitary conditions are far better than a hundred years ago.
 
Question 3: What are sanitary conditions like our villages today and how would you improve them?
Answer:
Today, our villages are poorly drained, outdoor toilets are common and streets are unpaved. We could improve them by awaring people about better sanitation and its positive effect on their health.    
 
Question 4: How has scientific method helped us in the production and preservation of foods?
Answer:
Through scientific method, we get more production of food. Modern methods of selecting, grading and processing have helped us a lot in the preservation of food.
 
Question 5: We are less fearful than our ancestors. What were our ancestors afraid of?
Answer:
We are less fearful than our ancestors because we have left believing superstitions. Our ancestors were afraid of black cats, broken mirrors and the number 13.
 
Question 6: How has the scientific method enabled us to get over the old fears?
Answer:
Scientific method has made us reasonable. Now, we know there is a sound reason behind every happening. In this way, the scientific method has enabled us to get over the old fears.
 
Question 7: What part did astrology play in the lives of men and women in the past? Give examples?
Answer:
In the past, astrology played important part in the lives of men and women. People used to consult astrologists before marriages and other important matters of life.
 
Question 8: Describe some of the superstitions still current in our country. How do they affect the lives of those who believe in them?       
Answer:
Still some people believe in wearing charms and other superstitions like them. They affect the lives of those according to belief.
 
Question 9: What were the survival chances two hundred years age?
Answer:
Two hundred years ago, seven out of eight babies died before reaching their first birthday.
 
Question 10: What do we mean by the word attitude?
Answer:
By attitude we mean the way we feel and think towards an idea or an event.
 
Question 11: What is meant by superstitions?
Answer:
Feelings which involve fears are called superstitions. Black cats, broken mirrors and number 13 are some common superstitions.
 
Question 12: How did thrifty housewives preserve food in the past?
Answer:
Thrifty housewives preserved their home-grown vegetables and fruits by canning, pickling, or drying them for use during the cold weather. Meats were preserved by salting and drying or by freezing.
 
Question 13: How scientific method has improved our ways of life?
Answer:
Scientific method has improved our ways of life by solving health problems, by increasing production and preservation of food and by bringing positive changes in our attitude.
 
Question 14: What is the purpose of this lesson?
Answer:
This lesson helps us to understand how the use of scientific method has improved living conditions and changed our attitude. 

Written by: Asad Hussain & Muhammad Jawad

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XII Short Questions The Dying Sun

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XII Short Questions The Dying Sun

Question 1: How is it that star seldom finds another star near it?
Answer:
A star seldom finds another star near it because there is a distance of millions of miles between the two stars. Moreover, space is immensely vast and each star is bound to travel in its own orbit.

Question 2: What happened when, according to Sir James Jeans, a wandering star, wandering through space came near the sun?
Answer:
When a wandering star came near the sun, it raised tides on the surface of the sun. These tides formed a high mountain on the surface of the sun that we can hardly imagine.

Question 3: What happened when the wandering star came nearer and nearer?
Answer:
When the wandering star came nearer and nearer the sun, the mountain on the surface of the sun rose higher and higher and was, finally, torn into pieces.

Question 4: What are planets and how did they come into existence?
Answer:
The planets are the broken parts of the sun. They came into existence due to tidal pull caused by some star on the surface of the sun.

Question 5: Why is there no life on the stars?
Answer:
There is no life on the stars because the stars are balls of fire and they have intense heat. Therefore, the stars are  too hot for life to exist on them.

Question 6: Write a note on the beginning of life on earth?
Answer:
When the earth gradually became cooler and cooler. Life started in very simple organisms which had ability to reproduce themselves before dying. In the end, it produced the most complicated organisms like man who has feelings and ambitions.

Question 7: Why is the universe so frightening?
Answer:
The universe is so frightening because of immense stretches of time, extreme loneliness and absence of life on other planets.

Question 8: What should be the conditions necessary, for the kind of life we know to exist on other heavenly bodies? Do such conditions generally exist?
Answer:
Life can exist only in some suitable physical condition like moderate temperature, air and water. Such conditions do not exist on other heavenly bodies except the earth. Therefore, there is no life on other heavenly bodies.

Question 9: How do the stars travel in the universe?
Answer:
The stars travel in the universe either in groups or mostly they travel alone. They travel at vast distance from one another

Question 10: What are the temperature belts?
Answer:
The temperature belts are zones that surround each hot star at a certain distance. The temperature there is neither too hot nor too cold. Life can exist on such temperature belts.

Written by: Asad Hussain & Muhammad Jawad

Tuesday, 27 October 2015

F.Sc ICS Notes: Physics XII: Chapter 16 Alternating Current Numerical Problems

F.Sc ICS Notes: Physics XII: Chapter 16 Alternating Current Numerical Problems

Numerical Problem 16.1: An alternating current is represented by the equation I = 20 sin 100 (pie)t. Compute frequency and the maximum and r.m.s values of current.
Numerical Problem 16.2: A sinusoidal A.C. has a maximum value of 15 A. What are its r.m.s. values? If the time is recorded from the instant the current is zero and is becoming positive, what is the instantaneous value of the current after 1/300 s, given the frequency is 50 Hz.

F.Sc ICS Notes: Physics XII: Chapter 16 Alternating Current Numerical Problems Asad Hussain

Numerical Problem 16.3: Find the value of current and inductive reactance when A.C voltage of 220 V at 50 Hz is passed through an inductor of 10 H.
Numerical Problem 16.4:
A circuit has an inductance of 1/(pie) H and resistance of 2000 ohm. A 50 Hz A.C. is supplied to it. Calculate the reactance and impedance offered by the circuit.

F.Sc ICS Notes: Physics XII: Chapter 16 Alternating Current Numerical Problems Asad Hussain 1

Numerical Problem 16.5 An inductor of pure inductance 3/(pie) H is connected in series with a resistance of 40 ohm. Find (i) the peak value of the current (ii) the r.m.s value, and (iii) the phase difference between the current and the applied voltage V = 350 sin (100 (pie) t).

F.Sc ICS Notes: Physics XII: Chapter 16 Alternating Current Numerical Problems Asad Hussain2

Numerical Problem 16.6: A 10mH, 20 ohm coil is connected across 240 V and 180/(pie) Hz source. How much power does it dissipate?



F.Sc ICS Notes: Physics XII: Chapter 16 Alternating Current Numerical Problems Asad Hussain 3


Numerical Problem 16.7: Find the value of the current flowing through a capacitance 0.5 micro F when connected to a source of 150 V at 50 Hz.
Numerical Problem 16.8:
An alternating source e.m.f 12 V and frequency 50 Hz is applied to a capacitor of capacitance 3 micro F in series with a resistor of resistance 1 ohm. Calculate the phase angle.

F.Sc ICS Notes: Physics XII: Chapter 16 Alternating Current Numerical Problems Asad Hussain 4 

Numerical Problem 16.9: What is the resonant frequency of a circuit which included a coil of inductance 2.5 H and a capacitance 40 micro F?
Numerical Problem 16.10:
An inductor of inductance 150 micro F is parallel with a variable capacitor  whose capacitance can be changed from 500 pico F to 20 pico F. Calculate the maximum frequency and minimum frequency for which the circuit can be tuned.

F.Sc ICS Notes: Physics XII: Chapter 16 Alternating Current Numerical Problems Asad Hussain 5

Written by: Asad Hussain

Wednesday, 21 October 2015

FSc Notes Chemistry Part 1 Chapter 6 Chemical Bonding Lecture 8

FSc Notes Chemistry Part 1 Chapter 6 Chemical Bonding Lecture 8


Dipole Moment (LL):

Introduction:
Dipole moment is the measure of separation of charges in a molecule. In other words, the degree of polarity of a molecule is expressed in terms of dipole moment.
Definition: The product of magnitude of Between two changes of equal magnitude with opposite sign is equal to dipole moment. Ie
Dipole moment= charge x distance
Ll= q x d.

Explanation:
The dipole moment is a vector quantity and is represented by an arrow which is directed from +ve pole the molecule.
For example in HCL molecule, the bonding electron pair is not shared equally b/w H and Cl atoms. The Cl atom, being more electronegative pulls the electron pair closer to it. Thus CL gets a slight or partial negative while H gets a partial positive charge. Thus HCL is a polar molecule and is indicated as,
+ S---------- - S
H---------------Cl

Units of Dipole Moment:
The common unit of dipole moment is Debye ( D). The SI unit of dipole moment is " coulomb x meter " ( ie Cm )

1D = 3.335 x 10-30 Cm
Or
1D = 1 x 10-18 esu x cm

A Debye can be defined as:
The magnitude of dipole moment ( ll) when the charge (q) is 1 x 10-10 esu ( electrostatic unit ) and distance (d) is IAO (ie 10-8cm ) is known as one debye
Ie ID = 1 x 10-10 esu charge x 1x 10-8 cm distance
ID = 1 x 10-10 esu x cm

Factors upon Which the Dipole Moment of a Molecule Depends
Dipole moment depends upon the following factors,
  1. Polarity of molecule
  2. Magnitude of charge
  3. Geometry of molecule.


Measurement of Dipole Moment

The dipole moment of a molecule is measured with the help of an electric condenser. These are two plates in the condenser. The plates are made of conducting material.
The sample molecule ( whose D.M is to be measured ) are placed b/w the plates and the plates are connected with the opposite poles of a battery. Thus an electric field is established whose strength is equal to the applied voltage (V) divided by the distanced b/w the plates. As the polar molecule, has opposite charges of equal magnitude, therefore they cancel out the effect of each other, and thus the not charge of the dipole ( polar molecule ) is always Zero. Thus the polar molecules placed b/w the oppositely charged plates, are attracted by none of the plates. However, the polar molecules rotate in b/w the plates, in such a way that the –ve pole gets towards. The +ve plate while the +ve pole of the dipole gets towards the –ve plate. Thus during this rotation of the dipole by the electric field, the strength of the electric field decreases because of doing work.
The decrease in the electric field strength is noted. Then from this decrease in the electric field strength, the dipole moment of the molecule is measured.


Application of Dipole Moment:

D.M is very much helpful in explaining the structures or geometries of molecules. The value of dipole moment of a molecule illustrates its correct geometry. It is clear from the following examples.

1. Water ( H2O ) :
As H2O is a tri-atomic molecule, so it can have two types of geometry ie either " linear " or "Angular or Bent " If water has linear geometry, then the polarity or dipole moment of both its O—H bond will cancel out each other being equal and opposite and hence the net D.M of H2O should be OD Ie
If H2O has an angular geometry, then the dipole moments of the two O—H bonds is more opposite, thus they don’t cancel out each other and hence the D.M of H2O in this can should be greater than O.
When the D.M of water is measured out, practically, it comes out to be 1.84 d. So it confirms that H2O cannot have linear geometry. It has always a bent or angular geometry.

2.Carbon Dioxide ( CO2 ) AND Sulphur Dioxide ( SO2 )
I. CO2 : As CO2 is tri- atomic molecule, so it can have either a linear or angular geometry. If CO2 has a linear geometry, then the dipole moment of two C==O bonds will cancel out each other, being equal and opposite and thus the not dipole moment of CO2 will be Zero Debye. On the other hand, if CO2 has angular or bent structure, then the dipole moments of the two C==O bonds are no more opposite, so they will not cancel out each other and thus CO2 should have some dipole moment.
But practically, the dipole moment of CO2 comes out to be Zero Debye, so Co2 always has linear geometry and can never have angular geometry.
ii. SO2 : it is also a tri- atomic molecule so according to the above explanation it can have a linear or angular geometry.
As practically the dipole moment of SO2 molecule comes out to be 1.62D, so SO2 has always an angular or bent structure and can never have a linear structure.

3.Boron Trifluoride ( BF3) and Ammonia ( NH3 )
The experimentally determined dipole moment of BF3 is Zero Debye. It is because of the fact that the three B—F bonds of BF3 molecule, are arranged symmetrically around the boron atom in the same plane. Thus the bond moments of the three B—F bonds cancel out each other's effect ie The experimentally determined dipole moment of Ammonia ( NH3 ) is 1.47D. it is because of the pyramidal geometry of NH3.
In NH3 molecule, the three hydrogen atoms lie in one plane symmetrically with N atoms at the apex of the regular pyramid. The dipole moments of the three N—H bonds, on addition give a not dipole moment to NH3 molecule. In addition, three is a lone pair of electrons on N atom & the –ve change of this lone pair remains un-chanced.


Bond Energy & Bond Length:

Bond Energy:
The amount of energy evolved, when one mole of a molecule is from its neutral atoms is known as bond energy of that molecule
Or
The amount of energy absorbed during breaking of bonds in one mole of a molecule to produce neutral atoms, is known as bond energy of that molecule. Bond energy is measured in the unit of Joules per mole ( J/mole ) or Kilo joules per mole ( Kj/ mole ).
The bond energy of a molecule shows the strength of the bonds of that molecule the higher the bond energy of molecule, stronger will be its bonds & vice versa.
It is important to note that polar bond has greater bond energy than non- polar bond. It is because of the fact that in case of polar bond, the shared pair of electrons is more closer to the nucleus of more electronegative element. Thus this shared pair of es is attracted strongly by one the two nuclei and hence more energy is required to separated these electrons.
Thus we can say that the bond energy also tell us about the extent of polarity of a molecule. For example the bond energy of HF is greater than that of HCL which shows that the H—F bond is more polar than H—CL bond.

Bond Length:
The distance b/w the nuclei of two covalently bonded atoms, is known as bond length. The bond length b/w two atoms is often ( but not always ) independent of the nature of molecule. For example in alkenes, the C—C, bond length is 154 pm. The C—C bond length in diamond is also 154pm.
As the electro-negativity difference b/w the bonded atoms increases, the bond length decreases and hence the bond energy increases ( ie bond becomes stronger ). Thus it is clear that a polar covalent bond is stronger than a non—polar covalent bond.
In case of polar covalent bond, the departure from additively of bond length occurs. For example, in SIH4, the SI—F bond length is found to be 154—159 pm. But the covalent radii of Si and F, the bond length of Si—F bond comes out to be 117 + 64 = 181 IPM, Thus the calculated bond length ( 181 ) of Si—F bond is greater than the actual bond length of Si—F bond just because of the electro-negativity difference of Si & F ( ie due to polarity ). Thus polarity affects the bond length.
Similarly, hybridization scheme, also plays a virtual role in the shortening of bond length. Due to the involvement of S orbital in hybridization, the bond length decreases between S orbital is close to the nucleus and hence it makes the atom more electronegative. Greater the S character in a hybrid orbital, greater will be the electeronegativity of the hybridized atom, and hence shorter will be the bond length, formed from that hybrid orbital with some other atom and hence stronger will be the bond.
As in case of ethane, each carbon undergoes SP3 hybridization, where the S character is 25% hence C atoms have normal electro negativity and the C—C bond has larger length ( ie 154 pM ) In case of ethane ( C2H4 ) each C undergoes SP2 hybridization, where the S character is 33.3 % hence C atom of ethane are a little more electronegative than those of ethane and hence the C—C bond length of ethene is shorter than that of entane than C—C bond length of ethane is 133 pm In case of ethane C2H2 each C undergoes SP hybridization, where S character is 50 % hence the C atoms of ethane are most electronegative as compared to those of ethane & ethane. Thus the C—C bond length of C2H2 is 120 pm.
Here multiple bond formation in case of ehtyne & ethane also plays some part in C—C bond length shortening.

Written by: Asad Hussain

FSc Notes Chemistry Part 1 Chapter 6 Chemical Bonding Lecture 7

FSc Notes Chemistry Part 1 Chapter 6 Chemical Bonding Lecture 7




Molecular Orbital Theory ( M.O.T ) :

VSEPR theory and VBT failed in explaining some particular properties of atoms and molecules, like paramagnetism, atomic spectra etc. so MOT was presented by Hund and Millikan to overcome these problems.

Assumptions:

The main postulates or assumptions of M.O.T are described below.
  • The atomic orbitals ( A.O.S ) of the bonding atoms overlap or mix and produce an equivalent number of new orbitals which are known as molecular orbitals ( M.O.S ) ie we can say that the no. of M.OS is equal to the no.of mixing A.O.S.
  • Half of the M.Os are known as bonding molecular orbitals ( B.M.Os ) in which bond formation takes place, while half of the M.Os are known as Anti bonding molecular orbitals ( ABMOS ), which are unstable and hence no bond formation takes place in Anti bonding molecular orbitals.
  • The energy of B.M.O.s isles or lower than the energy of A.Os hence. B.M.Os are stable while the energy of A.B.M.Os is higher than the energy of the A.Os, hence Anti bonding molecular orbitals are unstable. Thus it is clear that sum of the energies of B.M.Os and A.B.M.Os is always equal to the total energy of the A.Os.
  • The B.M.Os are denoted by the notation s like A.Os while A.B .M.Os are denoted by the notations .
  • The M.Os are formed by linear or axial overlapping of atomic orbitals similarly the M.Os are formed by parallel or side wise overlapping of atomic orbitals.
  • The formation of M.Os is shown as follow. M.O.T obeys Aufbau, principle, Hund’s Rule as well as Pauli exclusion principle. The increasing order of energy of the M.Os is Bond order shows the no. of covalent bonds formed between the bonding in a molecule if B.O is Zero then no bond will formed among the atoms. If B.O is 1,then single covalent bond will be formed, if B.O is 2 then double covalent bond will be formed and if B.O is 3, then a triple covalent Bond will be formed among the bonding atoms.

Applications:

The formation of some homo-nuclear di- atomic molecule ( molecules which are made of atoms of some elements ), can be explained with the help of M.O.T as follow.

1. Hydrogen Molecule( H2 )
H2 molecule is made of two hydrogen atoms. Each H has a is 1 atomic orbitals. According to M.O.T the two 1s1 A.Os of the two bonding H atoms overlap and form two M.Cs. one M.O is a B.M.O ( ie SCH ) and the others is an A.B.M.O ( ie S C Is ), So Pauli Exclusion principle is also obeyed A, B.O of H2 molecule is 1, so there is a single covalent bond among H atoms in H2 ,molecule
i.e. H—H

2. Helium Molecule:( He2 )
Helium molecule has two He atoms. The electron configuration of each He atom is,
2He = 1S2 A.O.
2He = 1S2 A.O.
Each He atom has a 1S2 atomic orbital when these two is A.Os mix, the form two M.Os. one of the two M.Os is B.M.O which S ( 1S ) and the other is an A.B.M.O which is Sx ( 1S ). As a electron are available, so according to Aufbau principle, two electrons will go to S ( 1S ) and 2 to Sx ( 1S ).
The electrons in the M.Os are with opposite spin, so Pauli Exclusion principle is followed ie As the B.O of He2 molecule is Zero hence He2 molecule is not possible because no bond is formed among the He atoms.

3. Nitrogen Molecule ( N2 ):
A.N2 molecule is made of two N atoms. The electronic configuration of each N atom is:
It is clear that each N atom has five atomic orbitals and hence according to M.O.T ten M.Os will be formed during bond formation among N atoms of N2 molecules is of all the IS2atomic orbital of each N atom will mix to form two M.Os ie S( IS ) ( B.M.O ) and Sx ( IS ) ( A.B.M.O ). But due to presence of 4es, their B.O will be zero, so they don’t participate in bonding. then the 3p ( 2px1, 2py1, 2pz1 ) degenerate A.Os of one N atom will mix with the three P (ie 2px1, 2py1, 2pz1 ) degenerate A orbitals of their N atom, two form six M.Os. three of the M.Os are B.M.Os which are S (2px ) , (2py ) and (2B) ( note : (2py) (2p2) m.os are degenerate ie have same energy and shape.
While the remaining three M.Os are A.B.M.Os which are S (2px), (2py) and (2pz). In case of N atom the valence orbital ie 2p is half filled ( ie has 3 electrons ) hence, it is a bit more stable and due to this extra stabilizing, the energy of (2py) and (2pz), B.M.Os is smaller than the energy of S( 2px ) B.M.O ( it is an exceptional case ) The above explanation can be shown as, from the above diagrams, it is clear that there are a total of 10 electrons in B.M.Os and 4 electrons in the A.B.M.Os so the bond order of N2 molecule will be
So there is a triple covalent bond among N among N atoms of N2 molecule ie N=N
Note: as there is no unpaired electron in N2 molecule ie all its electrons are paired, therefore N2 molecule is diamagnetic.

4. Oxygen Molecule ( O2 ) :
O2 molecule is made of two oxygen atoms . the electronic configuration of each oxygen atom is
O8 = 1S2, 2S2, 2P4 ( ie, 2P2x, 2py1, 2Pz1 )
O8 = 1S2, 2S2, 2P4 ( ie, 2P2x, 2py1, 2Pz1 )
As each "O" atom has 5 atomic orbitals, so according to M.O.T, ten M.Os will be formed during bonding of the two O atoms to form O2 molecule.
S of the IO M.Os are B.M.Os which are S(1S), S(2S), S(2Px) (2py) and (2pz). While the remaining 5 are A.B.M.Os which are Sx(1S), Sx(2S), Sx(2Px), (2py) and (2pz). First of all, the IS2A.Cs of both " O " atoms mix and form two M.Cs one is B.M.O which S(IS) and the other is A.B.M.O which is Sx (1S). As both B.M.C and A.B.M.O have equal no. of electrons ( ie 2es in each ) so they the is A.OS don’t participate in bonding. Then the 2S2 A.Os of both "O" atoms mix and form two more M.Os one is B.M.O ( ie S (25) ) and the other is A.B.M.O ( which is Sx ( 2S). Due to having equal no. of es in S(2S) and Sx (2S), they also don’t participate in bond formation.
Then the three P degeneration orbitals ( ie, 2P2x, 2py1, 2Pz1 ) of one "O" atom mix with the three P degenerate orbitals ( ie, 2P2x, 2py1, 2Pz1 ) of other "O" atom to form six M.Os. three of them are B.M.Os ( ie S ( 2Px ), (2PY) (2Pz) while the remaining three are A.B.M.Os ( ie S ( 2Px ), (2PY) (2Pz).
As there are 8 electrons in all the 2P orbitals of both the oxygen atoms. So according to Aufbau principle two electrons will go to S(2Px), then 4L-S will go to the (2Py) and (2pz) degenerate orbitals. The remaining two electrons will go into the A.B.M.Os (2Py) and (2pz). As (2Py) and (2pz) orbitals are degenerate to according to Hund's Rule, the two es will occupy them singly with same spin.
The above explanation is shown as, So there is a double covalent bond b/w "O" atoms of O2 molecule ie O==O
Due to the presence of two unpaired es in the (2py) and (2pz) M.Os O2 molecule shows its paramagnetic character.
Before M.O.Ti all other theories failed to explain the paramagnetic character of O2 although whenever liquid O2 had been placed in a magnetic field, it got attracted by the magnet. Thus it was clear that O2 molecule has one or more unpaired electrons but where are the located was a real problem
M.O.T is the only theory which solved the above mentioned problem and showed the unpaired electrons in O2 molecule.

Thus M.O.T is superior to all other theories.


Written by: Asad Hussain