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Friday, 29 January 2016

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Formula Definite Integral

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Formula Definite Integral

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Formula Definite Integral by Asad Hussain

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Formula Definite Integral by Asad Hussain 1

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Formula Definite Integral by Asad Hussain 2

Written by: Asad Hussain

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.5 question 23 - 31

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.5 question 23 - 31

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.5 question 23 - 31 by Asad Hussain
FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.5 question 23 - 31 by Asad Hussain 1
FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.5 question 23 - 31 by Asad Hussain 2

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.5 question 23 - 31 by Asad Hussain 3
FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.5 question 23 - 31 by Asad Hussain 4

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.5 question 23 - 31 by Asad Hussain 5

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.5 question 23 - 31 by Asad Hussain 6

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.5 question 23 - 31 by Asad Hussain 7
FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.5 question 23 - 31 by Asad Hussain 8

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.5 question 23 - 31 by Asad Hussain 9

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.5 question 23 - 31 by Asad Hussain 10

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.5 question 23 - 31 by Asad Hussain 11

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.5 question 23 - 31 by Asad Hussain 12

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.5 question 23 - 31 by Asad Hussain 13

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.5 question 23 - 31 by Asad Hussain 14

Written by: Asad Hussain

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.5 question 12 - 22

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.5 question 12 - 22

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.5 question 12 - 22 by Asad Hussain

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.5 question 12 - 22 by Asad Hussain 1

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.5 question 12 - 22 by Asad Hussain 2

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.5 question 12 - 22 by Asad Hussain 3

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.5 question 12 - 22 by Asad Hussain 4

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.5 question 12 - 22 by Asad Hussain 5

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.5 question 12 - 22 by Asad Hussain 6

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.5 question 12 - 22 by Asad Hussain 7

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.5 question 12 - 22 by Asad Hussain 8

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.5 question 12 - 22 by Asad Hussain 9

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.5 question 12 - 22 by Asad Hussain 10

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.5 question 12 - 22 by Asad Hussain 11

Written by: Asad Hussain

Backdoors, Trojans, Viruses and Worms

Backdoors, Trojans, Viruses and Worms


Introduction:

Trojans and backdoors are two ways a hacker can gain access to a target system. They come in many different varieties, but they all have one thing in common: They must be installed by another program, or the user must be tricked into installing the Trojan or backdoor on their system. Trojans and backdoors are potentially harmful tools in the ethical hacker’s toolkit and should be used judiciously to test the security of a system or network. Viruses and worms can be just as destructive to systems and networks as Trojans and backdoors. In fact, many viruses carry Trojan executables and can infect a system then create a backdoor for hackers. This chapter will discuss the similarities and differences among Trojans, backdoors, viruses, and worms. All of these types of malicious code or malware are important to ethical hackers because they are commonly used by hackers to attack compromised systems.

Backdoor

A backdoor is a program or a set of related programs that a hacker installs on a target system to allow access to the system at a later time. A backdoor's goal is to remove the evidence of initial entry from the system’s log files. But a backdoor may also let a hacker retain access to a machine it has penetrated even if the intrusion has already been detected and remedied by the system administrator.
Remote Administration Trojans (RATs) are a class of backdoors used to enable remote control over a compromised machine. They provide apparently useful functions to the user and, at the same time, open a network port on the victim computer. Once the RAT is started, it behaves as an executable file, interacting with certain registry keys responsible for starting processes and sometimes creating its own system services. Unlike common backdoors, RATs hook themselves into the victim operating system and always come packaged with two files: the client file and the server file. The server is installed in the infected machine, and the client is used by the intruder to control the compromised system.

Trojan

A Trojan is a malicious program disguised as something benign. Trojans are often downloaded along with another program or software package. Once installed on a system, they can cause data theft and loss, and system crashes or slowdowns; they can also be used as launching points for other attacks such as Distributed Denial of Service (DDOS). Many Trojans are used to manipulate files on the victim computer, manage processes, remotely run commands, intercept keystrokes, watch screen images, and restart or shut down infected hosts. Sophisticated Trojans can connect themselves to their originator or announce the Trojan infection on an Internet Relay Chat (IRC) channel.

Overt Channel

An overt channel is the normal and a legitimate way that programs communicate within a computer system or network.

Covert Channel

A covert channel uses programs or communications paths in ways that were not intended.

Trojans can use covert channels to communicate. Some client Trojans use covert channels to send instructions to the server component on the compromised system. This sometimes makes Trojan communication difficult to decipher and understand.

Covert channels rely on a technique called tunneling , which lets one protocol be carried over another protocol. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) tunneling is a method of using ICMP echo-request and echo-reply to carry any payload an attacker may wish to use, in an attempt to stealthily access or control a compromised system.

Different Types of Trojans

Trojans can be created and used to perform different attacks. Some of the most common types of Trojans are:
  • Remote Access Trojans (RATs)—used to gain remote access to a system.
  • Data-Sending Trojans—used to find data on a system and deliver data to a hacker.
  • Destructive Trojans—used to delete or corrupt files on a system.
  • Denial of Service Trojans—used to launch a denial or service attack.
  • Proxy Trojans—used to tunnel traffic or launch hacking attacks via other system.
  • FTP Trojans—used to create an FTP server in order to copy files onto a system.
  • Security software disabler Trojans—used to stop antivirus software.

Reverse-Connecting Trojans Work

Reverse-connecting Trojans let an attacker access a machine on the internal network from the outside. The hacker can install a simple Trojan program on a system on the internal network, such as the reverse WWW shell server. On a regular basis (usually every 60 seconds), the internal server tries to access the external master system to pick up commands. If the attacker has typed something into the master system, this command is retrieved and executed on the internal system. Reverse WWW shell uses standard HTTP. It’s dangerous because it’s difficult to detect—it looks like a client is browsing the Web from the internal network.

How the Netcat Trojan Works

Netcat is a Trojan that uses a command-line interface to open TCP or UDP ports on a target system. A hacker can then telnet to those open ports and gain shell access to the target system. Note: For the CEH exam, it’s important to know how to use Netcat. Make sure you download the Netcat tool and practice the commands before attempting the exam.


Indications of a Trojan Attack

Unusual system behavior is usually an indication of a Trojan attack. Actions such as programs starting and running without the user’s initiation; CD-ROM drawers opening or closing; wallpaper, background, or screen saver settings changing by themselves; the screen display flipping upside down; and a browser program opening strange or unexpected websites are all indications of a Trojan attack. Any action that is suspicious or not initiated by the user can be an indication of a Trojan attack.


Wrapping

Wrappers are software packages that can be used to deliver a Trojan. The wrapper binds a legitimate file to the Trojan file. Both the legitimate software and the Trojan are combined into a single executable file and installed when the program is run. Generally, games or other animated installations are used as wrappers because they entertain the user while the Trojan in being installed. This way, the user doesn’t notice the slower processing that occurs while the Trojan is being installed on the system—the user only sees the legitimate application being installed.

Wrapping Tools

Graffiti is an animated game that can be wrapped with a Trojan. It entertains the user with an animated game while the Trojan is being installed in the background.
Silk Rope 2000 is a wrapper that combines the BackOrifice server and any other specified application.
IconPlus is a conversion program that translates icons between various formats. An attacker can use this type of application to disguise malicious code or a Trojan so that users are tricked into executing it thinking it is a legitimate application.

Countermeasure Techniques in Preventing Trojans

Most commercial antivirus program have anti-Trojan capabilities as well as spyware detection and removal functionality. These tools can automatically scan hard drives on startup to detect backdoor and Trojan programs before they can cause damage. Once a system is infected, it’s more difficult to clean, but you can do so with commercially available tools.
It’s important to use commercial applications to clean a system instead of freeware tools, because many freeware removal tools can further infect the system. In addition, port-monitoring tools can identify ports that have been opened or files that have changed.

System File Verification Subobjective to Trojan Countermeasures

Windows 2003 includes a feature called Windows File Protection (WFP) that prevents the replacement of protected files. WFP checks the file integrity when an attempt is made to overwrite a SYS, DLL, OCX, TTF, or EXE file. This ensures that only Microsoft verified files are used to replace system files.
Another tool called sigverif checks to see what files Microsoft has digitally signed on a system. To run sigverif, perform the following steps:
  1. Click the Start button.
  2. Click Run.
  3. Type sigverif, and click Start. The results will be displayed.
System File Checker is another command-line–based tool used to check whether a Trojan program has replaced files. If System File Checker detects that a file has been overwritten, it retrieves a known good file from the Windows\system32\dllcache folder and overwrites the unverified file. The command to run the System File Checker is sfc/scannow.

Viruses and Worms

Viruses and worms can be used to infect a system and modify a system to allow a hacker to gain access. Many viruses and worms carry Trojans and backdoors. In this way a virus or worm is a carrier and allows malicious code such as Trojans and backdoors to be transferred from system to system much in the way that contact between people allows germs to spread.

Understand the Difference between a Virus and a Worm

Virus

A virus and a worm are similar in that they’re both forms of malicious software ( malware ). A virus infects another executable and uses this carrier program to spread itself. The virus code is injected into the previously benign program and is spread when the program is run. Examples of virus carrier programs are macros, games, e-mail attachments, Visual Basic scripts, games, and animations.

Worm


A worm is a type of virus, but it’s self-replicating. A worm spreads from system to system automatically, but a virus needs another program in order to spread. Viruses and worms both execute without the knowledge or desire of the end user.

Understand the Types of Viruses
Viruses are classified according to two factors: what they infect and how they infect. A virus can infect the following components of a system:
  • System sectors
  • Files
  • Macros (such as Microsoft Word macros)
  • Companion files (supporting system files like DLL and INI files)
  • Disk clusters
  • Batch files (BAT files)
  • Source code

Understand Virus Detection Methods
The following techniques are used to detect viruses:
  • Scanning
  • Integrity checking with checksums
  • Interception based on a virus signature

The process of virus detection and removal is as follows:
  1. Detect the attack as a virus. Not all anomalous behavior can be attributed to a virus.
  2. Trace processes using utilities such as handle.exe, listdlls.exe, fport.exe, netstat.exe, and pslist.exe, and map commonalities between affected systems.
  3. Detect the virus payload by looking for altered, replaced, or deleted files. New files, changed file attributes, or shared library files should be checked.
  4. Acquire the infection vector and isolate it. Then, update your antivirus definitions and rescan all systems.

Written by: Asad Hussain

Full Form of Hardware & Networking Devices and Terminology

Full Form of Hardware & Networking Devices and Terminology

In Hardware and Networking world, we have to face several situation where need the extended or complete form of abbreviated form. Here we tried to list few most of them with their full form.

AC
Alternating Current

ACPI
Advanced Configuration and Power Interface

ACT
Activity

ADSL
Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line

AGP
Accelerated Graphics Port

AMD
Advanced Micro Devices

AMR
Audio Modem Riser

APIPA
Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing

APM
Advanced Power Management

ARP
Address Resolution Protocol

ASR
Automated System Recovery

AT
Advanced Technology

ATA
Advanced Technology Attachment

ATAPI
Advanced Technology Attachment Packet Interface

ATM
Asynchronous Transfer Mode

ATX
Advanced Technology Extended

BIOS
Basic Input/Output System

BNC
Bayonet-Neill-Concelman or British Navel Connector

BRI
Basic Rate Interface

BTX
Balanced Technology Extended

CCD
Charged Coupled Device

CD
Compact Disc

CD-ROM
Compact Disc-Read-Only Memory

CD-RW
Compact Disc-Re-Writable

CDFS
Compact Disc file system

CMOS
Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor

CNR
Communication Network Riser

COM1
Communication Port 1

CPU
Central Processing Unit

CRIMM
Continuity-Rambus Inline Memory Module

CRT
Cathode-Ray Tube

DAC
Discretionary Access Control

DB-25
Serial Communications D-Shell Connector, 25 pins

DB-9
9 pin D Shell Connector

DC
Direct Current

DDOS
Distributed Denial Of Service

DDR
Double Data-Rate

DDR RAM
Double Data-Rate Random Access Memory

DDR SDRAM
Double Data-Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory

DFS
Distributed File System

DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

DIMM
Dual Inline Memory Module

DIN
Deutsche Industrie Norm

DIP
Dual Inline Package

DLT
Digital Linear Tape

DLP
Digital Light Processing

DMA
Direct Memory Access

DNS
Domain Name Service or Domain Name Server

DOS
Disk Operating System or Denial Of Service

DPMS
Display Power Management Signaling

DRAM
Dynamic Random Access Memory

DSL
Digital Subscriber Line

DVD
Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc

DVD-RAM
Digital Video Disc-Random Access Memory

DVD-ROM
Digital Video Disc-Read Only Memory

DVD-R
Digital Video Disc-Recordable

DVD-RW
Digital Video Disc-Re-Writable

DVI
Digital Visual Interface

ECC
Error Correction Code

ECP
Extended Capabilities Port

EEPROM
Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory

EFS
Encrypting File System

EIDE
Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics

EISA
Extended Industry Standard Architecture

EMI
Electromagnetic Interference

EMP
Electromagnetic Pulse

EPROM
Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory

EPP
Enhanced Parallel Port

ERD
Emergency Repair Disk

ESD
Electrostatic Discharge

ESDI
Enhanced Small Device Interface

EVGA
Extended Video Graphics Adapter/Array

EVDO
Evolution Data Optimized or Evolution Data Only

FAT
File Allocation Table

FAT12
12-bit file Allocation Table

FAT16
16-bit file Allocation Table

FAT32
32-bit file Allocation Table

FDD
Floppy Disk Drive

FERPA
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act

Fn
Function (referring to the function key on a laptop)

FRU
Field Replaceable Unit

FT
File Transfer Protocol

FQDN
Fully Qualified Domain Name

GB
Gigabyte

GDI
Graphics Device Interface

GHz
Gigahertz

GUI
Graphical User Interface

GPRS
General Packet Radio System

GSM
Global System for Mobile Communications

HAL
Hardware Abstraction Layer

HCL
Hardware Compatibility List

HDD
Hard Disk Drive

HDMi
High Definition Media Interface

HPFS
High Performance File System

HTML
Hypertext Markup Language

HTTP
Hypertext Transfer Protocol

HTTPS
Hypertext Transfer Protocol Over Secure Sockets Layer

I/O
Input/Output

ICMP
Internet Control Message Protocol

ICS
Internet Connection Sharing

ICR
Intelligent Character Recognition

IDE
Integrated Drive Electronics

IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

IIS
Internet Information Services

IMAP
Internet Mail Access Protocol

IP
Internet Protocol

IPCONFIG
Internet Protocol Configuration

IPP
Internet Printing Protocol

IPSEC
Internet Protocol Security

IPX
Internetwork Packet Exchange

IPX/SPX
Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange

IR
Infrared

IrDA
Infrared Data Association

IRQ
Interrupt Request

ISA
Industry Standard Architecture

ISDN
Integrated Services Digital Network

ISO
Industry Standards Organization

ISP
Internet Service Provider

KB
Kilobyte

LAN
Local Area Network

LBA
Logical Block Addressing

LC
Lucent Connector

LCD
Liquid Crystal Display

LDAP
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol

LED
Light Emitting Diode

LIP
LiPoly Lithium-Ion Polymer

Li-on
Lithium-Ion

LPD/LPR
Line Printer Daemon / Line Printer Remote

LPT
Line Printer Terminal

LPT1
Line Printer Terminal 1

LPX
Low Profile Extended

LVD
Low Voltage Differential

MAC
Media Access Control

MAN
Metropolitan Area Network

MAPI
Messaging Application Programming Interface

Mb
Megabit

MB
Megabyte

MBR
Master Boot Record

MBSA
Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer 

MCR
Multivariant Curve Resolution

MFD
Multi-Function Device

MFP
Multi-Function Product

MHz
Megahertz

MicroDIMM
Micro Dual Inline Memory Module

MIDI
Musical Instrument Digital Interface

MIME
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension

MLI
Multiple Link Interface

MMC
Microsoft Management Console

MMX
Multimedia Extensions

MP3
Moving Picture Experts Group Layer 3 Audio

MPEG
Moving Picture Experts Group

MSCONFIG
Microsoft Configuration

MSDS
Material Safety Data Sheet

MUI
Multilingual User Interface

NAPS
Network-Attached Storage

NAT
Network Address Translation

NetBIOS
Networked Basic Input/Output System

NetBEUI
Networked Basic Input/Output System Extended User Interface

NFS
Network File System

NIC
Network Interface Card

NiCd
Nickel Cadmium

NiMH
Nickel Metal Hydride

NLI
Not Logged In or Natural Language Interface

NLX
New Low-Profile Extended

NNTP
Network News Transfer Protocol

NTFS
New Technology File System

NTLDR
New Technology Loader

NWLINK
Netware Link

OCR
Optical Character Recognition

OEM
Original Equipment Manufacturer

OMR
Optical Mark Recognition

OS
Operating System 

OSR
Original Equipment Manufacturer Service Release

PAN
Personal Area Network

PATA
Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment

PC
Personal Computer

PCI
Peripheral Component Interconnect

PCIe
Peripheral Component Interconnect Express

PCIX
Peripheral Component Interconnect Extended

PCL
Printer Control Language

PCMCIA
Personal Computer Memory Card International Association

PDA
Personal Digital Assistant

PGA
Pin Grid Array

PGA2
Pin Grid Array 2

PIN
Personal Identification Number

PKI
Public Key Infrastructure

PnP
Plug and Play

POP
Post Office protocol

POP3
Post Office Protocol 3

POST
Power-On Self Test

POTS
Plain Old Telephone Service

PPP
Point-to-Point Protocol

PPTP
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol

PRI
Primary Rate Interface

PROM
Programmable Read-Only Memory

PS/2
Personal System/2 Connector

PSTN
Public Switched Telephone Network

PVC
Permanent Virtual Circuit

PXE
Preboot Execution Environment

QoS
Quality Of Service

RAID
Redundant Array of Independent (or Inexpensive) Discs

RAM
Random Access Memory

RAS
Remote Access Service

RBAC
Role-Based Access Control or Rule-Based Access Control

RDRAM
RAMBUS Dynamic Random Access Memory

RF
Radio Frequency

RFI
Radio Frequency Interference

RGB
Red Green Blue

RIMM
RAMBUS Inline Memory Module

RIP
Routing Information Protocol

RIS
Remote Installation Service

RISC
Reduced Instruction Set Computer

RJ
Registered Jack

RJ-11
Registered Jack Function 11

RJ-45
Registered Jack Function 45

RMA
Returned Materials Authorization

ROM
Read Only Memory

RS-232 or RS-232C
Recommended Standard 232

RTC
Real-Time Clock

SAN
Storage Area Network

SATA
Serial Advanced Technology Attachment

SC
Subscription Channel

SCSI
Small Computer System Interface

SCSI ID
Small Computer System Interface Identifier

SD
Card Secure Digital Card

SDRAM
Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory

SEC
Single Edge Connector

SFC
System File Checker

SGRAM
Synchronous Graphics Random Access Memory

SIMM
Single Inline Memory Module

SLI
Scalable Link Interface or System Level Integration or Scanline
Interleave Mode

SMB
Server Message Block or Small to Midsize Business

SMTP
Simple Mail Transport Protocol

SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol

SoDIMM
Small Outline Dual Inline Memory Module

SOHO
Small Office/Home Office

SP
Service Pack

SP1
Service Pack 1

SP2
Service Pack 2

SPDIF
Sony-Philips Digital Interface Format

SPGA
Staggered Pin Grid Array

SPX
Sequenced Package Exchange

SRAM
Static Random Access Memory

SSH
Secure Shell

SSID
Service Set Identifier

SSL
Secure Sockets Layer

ST
Straight Tip

STP
Shielded Twisted Pair

SVGA
Super Video Graphics Array

SXGA
Super Extended Graphics Array

TB
Terabyte

TCP
Transmission Control Protocol

TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

TDR
Time Domain Reflectometer

TFTP
Trivial File Transfer Protocol

UART
Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter

UDF
User Defined Functions or Universal Disk Format or Universal Data
Format

UDMA
Ultra Direct Memory Access

UDP
User Datagram Protocol

UL
Underwriter’s Laboratory

UNC
Universal Naming Convention

UPS
Uninterruptible Power Supply

URL
Uniform Resource Locator

USB
Universal Serial Bus

USMT
User State Migration Tool

UTP
Unshielded Twisted Pair

UXGA
Ultra Extended Graphics Array

VESA
Video Electronics Standards Association

VFAT
Virtual File Allocation Table

VGA
Video Graphics Array

VoIP
Voice Over Internet Protocol

VPN
Virtual Private Network

VRAM
Video Random Access Memory

WAN
Wide Area Network

WAP
Wireless Application Protocol

WEP
Wired Equivalent Privacy

WIFI
Wireless Fidelity

WINS
Windows Internet Name Service

WLAN
Wireless Local Area Network

WPA
Wireless Protected Access

WUXGA
Wide Ultra-Extended Graphics Array

XGA
Extended Graphics Array

ZIF
Zero-Insertion-Force

Written by: Asad Hussain

Monday, 25 January 2016

Sunday, 24 January 2016

Sunday, 17 January 2016

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.4 Question 4

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.4 Question 4

 
FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.4 Question 4 by Asad Hussain

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.4 Question 4 by Asad Hussain 1

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.4 Question 4 by Asad Hussain 2

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.4 Question 4 by Asad Hussain 3

Written by: Asad Hussain

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.4 Question 2 & 3

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.4 Question 2 & 3

 
FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.4 Question 2 & 3 by Asad Hussain

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.4 Question 2 & 3 by Asad Hussain 1

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.4 Question 2 & 3 by Asad Hussain 2

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.4 Question 2 & 3 by Asad Hussain 3

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.4 Question 2 & 3 by Asad Hussain 4

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.4 Question 2 & 3 by Asad Hussain 5

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.4 Question 2 & 3 by Asad Hussain 6

FSc ICS Notes Math Part 2 Chapter 3 Integration Exercise 3.4 Question 2 & 3 by Asad Hussain 7

Written by: Asad Hussain