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Thursday, 26 February 2015

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 2 Biological Molecules

    FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 2 Biological Molecules

Q 1. Define Biochemistry? Why study of biochemistry is essential in the field of biology or in the study of living organisms?
Ans. Biochemistry is a branch of Biology, which deals with the study of chemical components and the chemical processes in living organisms.
Importance of Biochemistry: A basic knowledge of biochemistry is essential for understanding anatomy and physiology, because all of the structures of an organism have biochemical organization. Photosynthesis, respiration, digestion, muscle contraction can all be described in biochemical terms.

Q 2. Name the most important organic and inorganic compounds in living organisms.
Ans. Most important organic compounds in living organisms are carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Among inorganic substances are water carbon dioxide, acids, bases and salts.

Q 3. Compare the chemical composition of bacterial and mammalian cell.
Ans.  Chemical Components   % Total Cell Weight Bacterial Cell   Mammalian Cell
                    Water                                                                70%                      70%
                    Proteins                                                             15%                      15%
                    Carbohydrates                                                   3%                        4%
                     Lipids                                                                2%                        3%
                    DNA                                                                  1%                     0.25%
                    RNA                                                                   6%                      1.1%
   Other organic molecules(Enzymes, hormones, metabolites)    2%                       2%
    Inorganic ions (Na+, K+. Ca+2, Mg+2, Cl-, (SO-2)4)         1%                       1%

Q 4. Differentiate between Metabolism, Catabolism and Anabolism.
Ans. Metabolism:  All the chemical reactions taking place within a cell are collectively called metabolism.
                                  Metabolism = Anabolism + Catabolism
Energy is taken and released simultaneously. 
Anabolism:    Those reactions in which substances are combined to form complex substances are called anabolic reactions. Anabolic reactions need energy. 
Catabolism:  The breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones, such reactions are called catabolic reactions. Energy is released during catabolic reactions.

Q 5. Why carbon is considered as the basic element of organic compounds?
Ans.  Carbon is considered as the basic element of organic compounds, because it is tetravalent. Due to its unique properties, carbon occupies the central position in the skeleton of life. It can react with oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur forming covalent bonds. It is also important due to following associations.
Carbon-Hydrogen Bond: It is potential source of chemical energy for cellular activities.
Carbon-Oxygen Bond: Carbon Oxygen association in glycosidic linkages provides stability to complex carbohydrate molecules.
Carbon-Nitrogen Bond: Carbon combines with nitrogen in amino acids linkages to form peptide bonds and forms proteins which are very important due to their diversity in structure and functions.

Q 6. What is the percentage of water in bone cells and brain cells of human?
Ans. Human tissue contain about 20 percent water in bone cells and 85 percent water in brain cells.

Q 7. Water is excellent solvent for polar substances. Justify this statement.
Ans. Due to its polarity, water is an excellent solvent for polar substances. Ionic substances when dissolves in water, dissociate into positive and negative ions. Non-ionic substances having charged groups in their molecules are dispersed in water. Almost all the reactions in cell occur in aqueous media.

Q 8. What is the function of non-polar substances?
Ans. Non-polar organic molecules such as fats, are insoluble in water and help to maintain membranes which make compartments in the cell.

Q 9. Define specific heat capacity of water.
Ans. The number of calories required to raise the temperature of 1g of water from 15-16C is 1. This is called specific heat capacity of water.
 
Q 10. How water works as a temperature stabilizer for living organisms?
Ans. Water has great ability of absorbing heat with minimum of change in its own temperature. This is because much of the energy is used to break hydrogen bonds. Water thus works as temperature stabilizer for organisms in the environment and hence protects living material against sudden thermal changes.

Q 11. How heat of vaporization of water is beneficial in daily life?
Ans. The specific heat of vaporization of water is 574 K cal/kg, which pays an important role in the regulation of heat produced by oxidation. It also provides cooling effect to plants when water is transpired, or to animals hen water is respired.    

Q 12. What is the concentration of H+ and OH- ions in pure water at 25C?
Ans. At 25C the concentration of each H+ and OH- ions in pure water is about 10-7 mole/litre of earch.

Q 13. How water act as an effective lubricant?
Ans. Water is effective lubricant that provides protection against damage resulting from friction. For example, tears protect the surface of eye from the rubbing of eyelids, water also forms a fluid cushion around organs that helps to protect them from trauma.

Q 14. List some important functions of carbohydrates.
Ans. Carbohydrates occur abundantly in living organisms. They are found in all organisms and in almost all parts of the ell. Carbohydrates play both structural and functional roles. Simple carbohydrates are the main source of energy in cells. Some carbohydrates are the main constituent of cell walls in plants and microorganisms. Cellulose of wood cotton an paper, starches present cereals, roots tubers, cane sugar and milk sugar are all examples of carbohydrates.

Q 15. What are carbohydrates?
Ans.  The word carbohydrate literally means hydrated carbons. They are composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen.
Formula:
Their formula is Cn(H2O)n.  

Chemical Definition:

Chemically, carbohydrates are defined as polyhydroxy aldehydes, or complex substances which no hydrolysis yield polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone subunits.  

Q 16. What is hydrolysis?
Ans. Hydrolysis involves the breakdown of large molecules into smaller ones utilizing water molecules.

Q 17. Carbohydrates are classified into how many groups?
Ans. Carbohydrates are classified into three groups:
  1. Mono saccharides
  2. Oligosacchardies
  3. polysaccharides
Q 18. What are Mono-saccharides? Give some of its properties and examples.
Ans. Mono saccharides are simple sugars. They are sweet in taste, are easily soluble in water, and cannot by hydrolyzed into simple sugar. Chemically they are either polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones. The sugar with aldehyde group is called also sugar and with keto group is called keto sugar. Examples are glyceraldehyde. ribose and glucose, etc.

Q 19. How glucose is prepared / produced naturally?
Ans.   Glucose is naturally produced in green plants which take carbon dioxide from air and water from the soil to synthesize glucose. Energy is consumed in this process which is provided by sunlight. That is why this process is called photosynthesis.

Q 20. How much glucose our blood contains?
Ans. Our blood normally contains 0.08% glucose.

Q 21. How much energy is used to synthesize 10g of glucose?
Ans.  717.6 K cal of solar energy is required for the synthesis of 10g of glucose.

Q 22. What are digosaccharides? Give some examples of important disacchraides.
Ans.  These are comparatively less sweet in taste, and less soluble in water. On hydrolysis oligosacchardies yield from to to ten mono saccharides. The one yielding two mono saccharides are known as disaccharides, those yielding three are known as trisaccharides and so on. The covalent bond between two mono saccharides is called glycosidic bond.

Q 23. What are polysaccharides? Name some biologically important polysaccharides.
Ans. Poly saccharides are the most complex and most abundant carbohydrate in nature. They are usually branched and tasteless. They are formed by several mono saccharides units linked by glycosidic bonds. Polysaccharides have high molecular weights and are only sparingly soluble in water. Some biologically important poly saccharides are starch, a gas, glycogen, cellulose, dextrins, pectin and chitin. 

Q 24. Differentiate between amylase and amylopectin.
Ans. Amylose:
1. Amylose starches have unbranched chains of glucose and 
2. Are soluble in hot water

Amylopectin:
1.  Amylopectin starches have branched chains and
2.  Are insoluble in hot or cold water

Q 25. Differentiate between starch, cellulose and glycogen.
Ans.   Starch: Is is found in fruits, grains and tubers. It is the main source of carbohydrates for animals. On hydrolysis, it yields glucose molecules. Starches are of two types, amylose and amylopectin. Amylose starches have branched chains of glucose and are soluble in hot water. Amylopectin starches have branched chains and are insoluble in hot or cold water. Give blue color with iodine.
Cellulose: It is most abundant in nature. Cotton is pure form of cellulose. It is the main constituent of cell wall of plants and is highly insoluble in water. On hydrolysis, it also yields glucose molecules. Cellulose gives no color with iodine. It is not digested in human digestive system. In the herbivores, it is digested because of micro-organism in their digestive tract. These micro-organisms secrete an enzyme called cellulase for its digestion.
Glycogen: It is also called animal starch. It is the chief form of carbohydrate stored in animal body. It is abundantly in liver and muscles, though found in all animal cells. It is insoluble in water and it also yields glucose on hydrolysis. Gives red color with iodine.

Q 26.What are lipids?
Ans.  The lipids are heterogenous group of compounds related to fatty acids. They are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as ether, alcohol, chloroform and benzene. Lipids include fats, oils, waxes, cholesterol and related compounds.

Q 27. What is the use of lipids in daily life? 
Ans.  Lipids as hydrophobic compounds are components of cellular membranes. They are used to store energy. Some lipids provide insulation against atmospheric heat and cold and also act as water proof material waxes, in the exoskeleton of insects and cutin, an additional protective layer on the cuticle of epidermis of some plants organs. e.g., leaves fruits, seeds etc., protect them.

Q 28. Give the classification of lipids.
Ans. Lipids have been classified as acylglycerols, waxes, phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids, and terpenoids lipids including carotenoids and steroids.

Q 29. What are acylglycerols?
Ans.  Acylglycerols are composed of glycerol and fatty acids. The most widely spread acylglycerol is triacylglycerol also triglycerides or neutral lipids. Chemically acylglycerol can be defined as esters of fatty acids and alcohol. An ester is the compound produced as the result of a chemical reaction of an alcohol with an acid and a water molecule is released.

Q 30. What are waxes? What is the importance of waxes?
Ans. Waxes are widespread as protective coatings on fruits and leaves Some insects also secrete wax. Chemically, waxes are mixtures of long chain alkanes and alcohols, ketones and esters of long chain fatty acids.
Importance: Waxes protect plants from water loss and abrasive damage. They also provide barrier for insects, birds and animals such as sheep.

Q 31. What are phospholipids? 
Ans. Phospholipids are derivatives of phosphoric acid, which are composed of glycerol, fatty acids and phosphoric acid. Nitrogenous bases such as choline ethanolamine and serine are important components of phospholipids. They are widespread in bacteria, animal and plant cells and are frequently associated with membranes. Phosphatidylcholine is one of the common phospholipids.

Q 32. What are terpenoids?
Ans. Terpenoids are a very large and important group of compounds which are made up of simple repeating simple units, isoprenoid units. This unit by condensation in different ways give rise to compounds such as rubber, carotenoids, steroids terpenes etc.

Q 33. What are proteins?
Ans. Proteins are the most abundant organic compounds to be found in cells and comprise over 50% of their total dry weight.

Q 34. Illustrate the important functions performed by proteins.
Ans.
  1. Building Structures of Cell: Proteins build many structures of the cell.
  2. As Enzymes: All enzymes are proteins in this way they control the whole metabolism of the cell.
  3. As Hormones: As hormones, proteins regulates metabolic processes.
  4. As carriers: Some proteins work as carriers and transport specific substances such as oxygen, lipids, ions etc.
  5. As Antibodies: Some proteins called antibodies, defend the body against pathogens.
  6. Blood Clotting Proteins: They prevent loss of blood from the body after an injury.
  7. Movement of Organs: Movement of organs and organisms, and movement of chromosomes during anaphase of cell division are caused by proteins.

Q 35.What are amino acids? Give its general formula.
Ans. Proteins are polymers of amino acid, the compounds containing nitrogen oxygen and hydrogen. All the amino acids have an amino group (-NH2) and a carboxyl group(-COOH) attached to the same carbon atom, also known as alpha carbon.

Q 36. How peptide bond is formed between two amino acids?
Ans. The linkage between the hydroxyl group of carboxyl group of one amino acid and the hydrogen of amino group of another amino acid release H2) and C-N link to form a bond called peptide bond,. The resultant compound of glycylalanine has two amino acid subunits and is a dipeptide. A dipeptide has an amino group at one end and a carboxyl group at the other end of the molecule.

Q 37. Who was the first scientist who determined the sequence of amino acids in a protein molecule?
Ans. F.Sanger was the first scientist who determined the sequence of amino acids in a protein molecules. After ten years, of careful work he concluded, that insulin is composed of 51 amino acids in two chain. One of the chains had 21 amino acids and the other had 30 amino acids and they were held together by disulphide bridges. Haemoglobin is composed of four chains, two alpha and two beta chains. Each alpha chain contain 141 amino acids, while beta chain contains 146 amino acids.

Q 38. What is ribosomal RNA?
Ans. It is the major portion of RNA in the cell, and may be up to 80% of the total RNA. It is strongly associated with the ribosomal protein where 40 to 50% of it is present. It acts as a machinery for the synthesis of proteins. On the surface of the ribosomal the mRNA and tRNA molecules interact to translate the information from genes into a specific protein.

Q 39. Why are fats considered as high energy compounds?
Ans.  Because of higher proportions of C-H bonds and very low proportion of oxygen, lipids store double the amount of energy as compared to the same amount of any carbohydrate.

Q 40. How were nucleic acids isolated?
Ans. Nucleic acids were isolated in 1870 by F. Miesches from the nuclei of the pus cells. Due to their isolation from nuclei and their acidic nature, they were named nucleic acids.

Q 41. Differentiate between a nucleotide and a nucleoside?
Ans. Nucleotide: A nucleoside and a phosphoric acid combine to form a nucleotide.
Nucleoside: The compound formed by combination of a base and pentose sugar is called nucleoside.

Q 42. What is a gene?
Ans. Gene is a unit of biological inheritance.

Q 43. Which was the first microbe have the genome completely sequenced?
Ans.   Haemophilus influenzae is the first microbe to have the genome completely sequenced and this was published on July 28, 1995.

Q 44. What is transpiration?
Ans.  RNA is synthesizes by DNA in a process as transcription.

Q 45. What is messenger RNA?
 Ans. it takes the genetic message from the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm to form particular proteins messenger RNA carries the genetic information from DNA to ribosomes, where amino acids are arranged according to the information in mRNA to form specific protein molecule. This is a type of a single strand of variable length. Its length depends upon the size of the gene as well as the protein form which it is taking the message. mRNA is about 3 to 4% of the total RNA in the cell.

Q 46. What is transfer RNA?
Ans.  It comprises about 10 to 20% of the cellular RNA Transfer RNA molecule are small, each with a chain length of 75 to 90 nucleotides. It is involved in protein synthesis.

Q 47. What are conjugated molecules? Give some examples of it.
Ans.  Two different molecules belonging to different categories usually combine together to form conjugated molecules. For exp: Glycoproteins, glycolipids, nucleoproteins, lipoproteins, etc.

Q 48. What are nucleohistones? What is their function?
Ans.  Nucleic acids have special affinity for basic proteins. Nucleohistones are present in chromosomes. They play important role in regulation of gene expression.

Q 49. What are lipoproteins? What is their function?
Ans.  Lipoproteins are formed by combination of lipids and proteins. They are basic structural framework of all types pf membranes in the cell.

Q 50. Differentiate between glycoproteins and glycolipids.
Ans.   Glycoproteins: Carbohydrate may combine with proteins to form glycoproteins. Most of the secretions are glycoprotein in nature and they are integral structural components of plasma membrane.
Glycolipids: Carbohydrate may combine with, lipids to form glycolipids. They are also integral structural components of plasma membrane.

Q 51. What is the contribution of Erwin Chargaff in biology regarding structure of DNA?
Ans.  In 1951 Erwin Chargaff provided data about the ratios of different bases present in the DNA molecule. This data suggested that adenine and thymine are equal in ratio and so are guanine and cytosine.

Q 52. Who used the technique of X-ray diffraction to determine structure of DNA?
Ans.  Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin Used the technique of X-ray diffraction to determine structure of DNA.

Q 53. Who built the scale model of DNA?
Ans.  James-D Watson and Francis Crick built the scale model of DNA.

Q 54. Differentiate between purines and pyrimidines?
Ans. Purines: These are double ringed nitrogenous bases. Adenine and guanine are purines.
Pyrimidines: These are single ringed nitrogenous bases. Cytosine, thymine and uracil are pyrimidines.

Q 55. Which one is more soluble in organic solvent Palmitic acid or Butyric acid? Support your answer.
 Ans. Palmitic acid is more soluble in organic solvents than butyric acid because it has more carbon atoms that butyric acid and its melting point is also more then butyric acid.

Q 56. Differentiate between saturated and unsaturated.
Ans.  Saturated Fatty Acid: Saturated fatty acid contains double bond. These are oils and liquids at room temperature.
Unsaturated Fatty Acid: Unsaturated fatty acids have no double bonds. They are fats and solid at room temperature.

Q 57. Describe primary structure of proteins. 
Ans.  The primary structure comprises the number and sequence of amino acids in a single chain in a protein molecule. The size of protein molecule is determined by the type of amino acids and the number of amino acids comprising that particular molecule.

Q 58. What is the secondary structure of proteins?
Ans.  The polypeptide chain in secondary do not lie flat. They coil into a helix or some other configuration. Common secondary structure is alpha-helix which involves spiral formation of the polypeptide chain. It has 3.6 amino acids in each turn. This structure is kept by the formation of hydrogen bonds among amino acids molecules. Beta-pleated Sheet is formed by folding back of the polypeptide.

Q 59. What is tertiary structure? How it is maintained?
Ans.  A polypeptide chain bends and folds upon itself forming a globular shape. This is the proteins tertiary structure. It is maintained by ionic, hydrogen and disulphide bonds.

Q 60. How many type of cell walls are present in different organisms?
Ans.  Organism                                 Cell Wall
          Bacteria                                    Pepidoglycan and lipopolysaccharides (lipoprotein complex)
          Blue green algae                        Muramic acid
          Fungi                                         Chitin
          Algae and other Plants               Mainly cellulose

Q 61. Write down the differences between DNA and RNA?
Ans.  Feature                     DNA                                      RNA
          Nucleotides                Deoxyribonucleotides              Ribonucleotides
           Pentose Sugar           Deoxyribose                            Ribose
           Nitrogenous Bases     A.G.C.T                                 A.G.C.U
           Physical Structure       Double strands                        Single strand
           Location                    Nuclei and in much lesser         Nucleolus, ribosomes, cystosol
                                            amount in mitochondria             and in smaller amount in other
                                            and chloroplasts.                      parts of the cell.
           Amount               Constant in each cell of species.      Variable from cell to cell.
           Role                          Heredity                                    Protein Synthesis

Q 62. Compare four levels of protein molecules.
Ans.  Feature      Primary                  Secondary          Tertiary              Quaternary
          Information  No and sequence    Coiling                 Bending and         Aggregation
                              of amino acids                                    folding
          Bonds           Disulphide              Hydrogen            Ionic, hydrogen,    Hydrophobic,
                                                                                        disulphide             ionic, hydrogen
          Example        Insulin, Hb             Alpha Helix      Single chain of Hb      Hb molecule

Q 63. Differentiate between different structure of proteins.
Ans.  Feature                                   Fibrous Protein                       Globular Protein
          Shape                                      Fibrils                                       Spherical or ellipsoidal
          Structural Organization             Secondary                                Tertiary
          Solubility in aqueous media       Insoluble                                   Soluble
          Crystal Nature                          Non-crystalline                         Crystalline          
          Elasticity                                   Elastic                                       Inelastic
          Role                                         Structural                                  Functional
          Stability                                    Stable                                       Unstable
          Examples                                 Silk fibers, actin, myosin,            Enzymes antibodies,
                                                          fibrin, keratin                             hemoglobin, hormones

Q 64. Describe conjugating molecules.
Ans.  Components                      Molecule                 Role
       Carbohydrates + Proteins     Glycoproteins          Cellular secretions, integral part
                                                                                  of biological membranes.
       Carbohydrates + Lipids        Glycolipids              Integral component of biological
                                                                                  membranes.
       Nucleic acid + Histones        Nucleohistones        Chromosome regulation of gene
                                                                                  Expression.

Written By: Asad Hussain    &   Muhammad Usman

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Biology

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Biology

Q 1. What do you know about hypothesis?
Ans. An observer organizes observation into data form and gives a statement as per experience and background knowledge of the event called hypothesis.

Q 2. Define clone?
Ans. A clone is defined as a cell or individual and all its asexually produced offspring. All members of a clone are genetically identical except when a mutation occurs.

Q 3. What is deduction?
Ans. it is reasoning from general to the specific. It infers a specific conclusion. It often takes from of an "if ....... then". It is frequently used to frame the testable hypothesis.

Q 4. What is the other name of seawater?
Ans. it is marine water.

Q 5. Name the heavy metals which are released from the automobiles and the tanneries.
Ans. These are lead and chromium.

Q 6. What is the gene therapy?
Ans. Gene therapy is the treatment of the defective gene by introducing normal and healthy gene into the body through bone marrow cells.

Q 7. Name a fatal viral disease of human liver?
Ans. Its name is hepatitis.

Q 8. What are antibiotics?
Ans. The antibiotics are the organic compounds extracted from the organisms and used for the treatment of bacterial diseases.

Q 9. Name the last period of the mesozoic era of the earth's history?
Ans. Its name is cretaceous period.

Q 10. Define population?
Ans. Population is a group of individuals of one species that line in a particular geographic are at the same line. Examples are the number of rats in a field of rice, the number of students in a class room.

Q 11. What is a theory?
Ans. A tested hypothesis is called a theory.

Q 12. Write down the full name of disease AIDS and its causative agent
Ans. It is Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome Its causative agent is the Human Immuno Deficiency Virus(HIV).

Q 13. What does the Latin word vacca mean?
Ans. It means cow.

Q 14. Name all the sixteen bio-elements.
Ans. Six are major elements these are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, calcium, sulphur, phosphorous, potassium, chlorine, sodium, magnesium, iron, copper, manganese, zinc and iodine.

Q 15. What is the amount of potassium chlorine and magnesium in the body of man?
Ans. Their amount is 0.35%, 0.15% and 0.05% of the total mass of the body of the man.

Q 16. What is tissue culture technique?
Ans. A technique for manipulating fragments of animal or plant tissue or separated cells alive after their removal from the organism. The tissue fragments ar kept usually within some sort of glass vessel in a medium of the right properties.

Q 17. Explain geological time scale.
Ans. It is a system of measuring the history of the earth by studying the rocks of the earth's crust.

Q 18. What is the percentage of insects of the total known species of organism?
Ans. It is 53.1%.

Q 19. What are the literal meanings of the word biology?
Ans. The literal meanings of the word biology are the study of life.

Q 20. What is the function of the glandular tissue?
Ans. The glandular tissue is specialized for secreting some thing useful for the body. e.g., gastric glands secrete gastric juice.

Q 21. Name the bio-elements which occur only in traces in the human body?
Ans. These are copper, manganese, zinc and iodine.

Q 22. Define theology.
Ans. The study of religion is known as theology.

Q 23. What does the word "Pathogenic" mean?
Ans. Pathogenic means "disease cause".

Q 24. What is pedigree?
Ans. Pedigree means the race of an organism.

Q 25. Name some most important and abundant organic compounds found in the bodies of the living brings?
Ans. These are glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, glycerol and nucleotides.

Q 26. What is community?
Ans. Community is an ecological term for any naturally occurring group of different organism in habiting a common environment interacting with each other, especially thorough food relationships, and relatively independent of the other groups. Communities may be of varying sizes and larger ones may contain smaller ones.

Q 27. Are the protists unicellular or multicellular organism?
Ans. The majority of the protists are unicellular organisms.

Q 28. Enumerate the various kinds of interaction between the organisms of a community.
Ans. These are the predation, parasitism, commensalism, mutualism and competition.

Q 29. Who introduced the technique of vaccination and when?
Ans. Edward Jenner introduced this technique in 1795.

Q 30. How many percent of the total known organisms of the are the vascular plants in the world?
Ans. They are 17.6 percent of the total known organisms of the world.

Q 31. What do you mean by hypothesis?
Ans. An observer organizes observations into data form and gives a statement as per experience and background knowledge of the event. This statement is the hypothesis. Or hypothesis is the statement made by a scientist on the basis of observation or available information.

Q 32. How does law differ from theory?
Ans. A theory is made from hypothesis which has been tested by many experiments. A good theory is predictive and has explanatory power. One of the most important features of a good theory is that it may suggest new and different hypothesis. A theory of this kind is called productive.
If a theory survives skeptical approach of other scientists and continues to be supported by experimental evidences, it becomes a scientific law. A scientific law is a uniform or constant fact of nature.

Q 33. What is deduction?
Ans. The logical consequence of a hypothesis is called a deduction.

Q 33. Define Vaccination.
Ans. Vaccination is the injection of vaccine to make the people immune from the intending degree of their being exposed to the virus or bacteria at the time of epidemics or in some diseases the individuals are vaccinated in their early life to make them immune to those diseases.

Q 34. Write a short note on cloning.
Ans. Cloning is a technology for achieving eugenic aims. A clone is defined as a cell or individual and all its asexually produced offspring. All members of a clone are genetically identical except when a mutation occurs.
Generally no normal animal reproduced naturally by cloning. Several insects and many plants do, in some circumstance whereas few do so regularly.
In 1997 scientists in Scotland succeeded in cloning a sheep. In this procedure the nucleus from a fertilize egg is removed and a nucleus from a cell of a fully developed individual is inserted in its place. The altered Zygotes is then implemented in a suitable womb where it completes its development. The new individual formed in this way is a genetically identical clone of the individual whose nucleus was used. Thus cloning could make multiple copies of a desired genotype.
Types of Cloning:
There are three types of cloning:
  1. Gene Cloning.
  2. Cell Cloning / Tissue Culture.
  3. Organism Cloning.
Gene Cloning: It is manipulation of genes. In this process, desired genes or pieces of DNA are introduced into a host by means of a carrier system. The foreign DNA becomes permanent feature of the host. It is replicated and passed on to daughter cells along with host DNA. Thus a number of clones of desired genes are formed. The foreign DNA could come from another organism or might be an artificially synthesized gene.
Cell Cloning / Tissue Culture: Multiplication or asexual production of a line of cells genetically identical to the original is called cell cloning or tissue culture. It is now common on plants however not yet possible in animals Bacteria and yeast naturally exercise this technique. In plants, cells from leaves, roots or other tissues are isolated and cultured in special medium. A small tumor like mass of cells called callus is formed. All cells of callus are genetically identical. When supplied with growth hormones, callus may develop into small plant-lets. The plant-lets may produce mature plants when planted in soil.
Organism Cloning: Organisms with desired characters may be produced in large numbers by asexual process without the involvement of meiosis and fertilization. Such production of organisms is called organism cloning.
Embryo Twining: Another type of cloning involves the division of a single egg or early embryo into one or more separate embryos. This is the same process the normally creates identical twins. Offspring from this type of cloning are genetically identical but carry chromosomes from each of the two parents. This type of cloning has already been used to produce genetically identical cattle and other farm animals. Man is likely to develop cloning - techniques for production of valuable animals of known pedigree such as horses etc.
Human Cloning: At some places scientists are making attempt to clone human embryo which they believe can serve as transplant donor. There is a lot of controversy in public as to whether human cloning should be attempted or not.

Written By: Asad Hussain

Wednesday, 25 February 2015

Java this keyword Garbage Collection finalize() method

                                 Java This Keyword

When a method will need to refer to the object that invoked it. To allow this , java defines the this keyword. this can be used inside any method to refer to the current object. That is, this is always a reference to the object on which the method was invoked. You can use this anywhere a reference to an object of the current class type is permitted.
For Exp
Rectangle(double l, double w){
      this.length = l;
      this.width = w;
}

This version of Rectangle() operated exactly like the normal. the use of this is redundant, but perfectly correct.

                           Java Garbage Collection

Objects are dynamically allocated by using the new  operator, you might be thinking how objects are destroyed and their memory released for later reallocation. In some languages, such as C++, dynamically allocated objects must be manually released by use of a delete operator. Java takes a different approach; it handles De-allocation for you automatically. The technique that accomplishes this is called garbage collection.

                                Finalize() Method

Sometimes an object will need to perform some action when it is destroyed. If an object is holding some non-Java resource such as a file handle or window character front, then you might want to make sure these resources  are freed before an object is destroyed. TO handle such situations, Java provides a mechanism called finalization. You can define specific actions that will occur when an object is just about to reclaimed by the garbage collector by using finalization. To add a finalize to a class, you simply define the finalize() method. The java run time calls that method whenever it is about to recycle an object of that class. Inside the finalize() method you will specify those actions that must be performed before an object is destroyed.
The general form of finalize() method is as under:

protected void finalize()
{
sample code 
 
}

keyword protected is used to prevent access to finalize() by code defined outside its class.





Written by : Asad Hussain

Sunday, 22 February 2015

Keywords in C++

                               Keywords in C++

The predefined words of the C++ that are used for special purposes in the program are called keywords.
Keywords are always written in lowercase. There are 63 keywords in C++. A list is given below.
asm                      auto                  bool                    break                    case                  catch
char                     class                 const                   const_cast            continue            default
delete                   do                    double                 dynamic_cast       else                   enum
explicit                 export              extern                 false                      float                  for
friend                   goto                  if                         inline                      int                     long
mutable                namespace      new                     operator                private              protected
public                   register            reinterpret_cast return                    short                 signed
sizeof                   static                static_cast          struct                     switch               template
this                       throw               true                     try                          typedef             typeid
typename             union               unsigned             using                      virtual               void
volatile                 wchar_t           while. 



Written By: Asad Hussain

Basic Structure of C++ Program

                   Basic Structure of C++ Program

The format according to which a computer program is written is called the structure of a program. The basic structure of C++ program includes following main parts:
  1. Preprocessor Directives
  2. The main() Function
  3. C++ Statements

                                      Preprocessor Directives

The instructions that are given to C++ compiler before the beginning of the actual program are called Preprocessor Directives. They are also known as compiler directives.
Important Preprocessor Directives are:
  1. Include
  2. Define

                                         C++ Header Files

It contain the declarations of standard functions. The header files also contain destination of various data types and constants needed by the functions. The extension of a header file is ".h".

                                         The main() Function

It comes after the Preprocessor Directive. The main90 function indicates the beginning of the C++ program. The main() function must be included in every C++ program. When a c++ program is executed, the control goes directly to the main() function and starts executing its statements.

                                          C++ Statements

A program statement is a fundamental unit of any programming languages. It is an instruction for the computer to do something. The statements of C++ program are written under the main() function between the curly brackets. Each statement of C++ program ends with semicolon (;). It is statement terminator. C++ is a case sensitive language.

Written By: Asad Hussain

First Simple Program in C++

                         First Simple Program in C++

 I have used Dev C++ for compilation of this program
if you want to copy, copy after this line.


/* Program developed by Asad Hussain */
#include<stdio.h>
#include<iostream>
#include<conio.h>
using namespace std;
int main(){
   
    cout<<"Hello";
    getch();
   
    }

Written By: Asad Hussain

C++ Problem Solving

Problem Solving

Problem Solving is a creative process. it includes following steps.
  1. Planning
  2. Analysis
  3. Design
  4. Coding
  5. Testing & Debugging
  6. Implementation
  7. Maintenance

Algorithm

The step by step procedure for the solution of a problem is called algorithm

Algorithm that input 3 Numbers , compute there sum and average.

1. INPUT first number into A
2. INPUT second number into B
3. INPUT third number into C
4. Sum = A + B+ C
5. Average = Sum / 3
6. PRINT Sum
7. PRINT Average
9. End

Types of Control Structure

There are three types of control structures.
  1. Sequential Structure
  2. Conditional Structure
  3. Iterative Structure

Flowchart

The graphical representation of an algorithm or solution of a problem is called flowchart.

Programming Languages


Low Level Languages

  1. Machine Language
  2. Assembly Language

High Level Language

  1. FORTRAN
  2. COBOL
  3. PASCAL
  4. C
  5. LISP
  6. BASIC
  7. RPG
  8. SQL,etc

Programming Techniques

  1. Structured Programming
  2. Object Oriented Programming
  3. Event Driven Programming
  4. Visual Programming

Language Processors

  1. Compiler Interpreter
  2. Assembler 

Written By: Asad Hussain


Java Constructors

                                    Java Constructors

A Constructor initializes an object immediately upon creation. It has the same name as the class in which it resides and is syntactically similar to a method. Once defined, the constructor is automatically called immediately after the object is created, before the new operator completes. Constructors have no return type.

Here is exp:

/*
         This is Java Program Showing Use Constructors.
          Program developed by #Asad Hussain
         This file name is "expconstructor.java".
*/
import java.util.*;
class Rectangle {
    double width;
    double length;

    Rectangle() {
        System.out.println("Constructor in work");
        width = 95;
        length = 45;
}
    double area() {
        return length * width;

}

}
public class expconstructor{
    public static void main(String args[]){
   
        Rectangle myrectangle1 = new Rectangle();
        Rectangle myrectangle2 = new Rectangle();
        double area;

        area = myrectangle1.area();
        System.out.println("Area is " + area);

        area = myrectangle2.area();
        System.out.println("Area is " + area);
}
}
   

Output of this Program:   

http://javac0.blogspot.com/2015/01/java-constructors.html
Java Program Showing Use constructor by Asad Hussain

Written By: Asad Hussain

Java Classes Introducing Methods Fundamental of method

                       Java Classes Introducing Methods

Introducing Methods:

Classes usually consist of two things: Instance Variables and Methods. The general form of a method:

type name (parameter-list) {
        body of method
}

type specifies the type of data returned by the method. This can be valid type, including class types that you create. If the method does not return a value, its return type must be void. The name of the method is specified by name. It is a legal identifier other than used by other items within current scope. The parameter-list is a sequence of type and identifier pairs separated by commas. If the method has no parameter, then the parameter list will be empty.
Methods that have a return type other than void return  a value to the calling routine using the following form of the return statement:

return value;

value is the value returned.

Java Program Showing Use of class having method and returns a value by Asad Hussain:

 /*
         This is Java Program Showing Use of class having method and returns a value.
          Program developed by #Asad Hussain
         This file name is "Returnmethod.java".
*/
import java.util.*;
class Rectangle {
    double width;
    double length;

    double area() {
        return length * width;

}

}
public class Returnmethod{
    public static void main(String args[]){
  
        Rectangle myrectangle1 = new Rectangle();
        Rectangle myrectangle2 = new Rectangle();
        double area;

        myrectangle1.width = 25;
        myrectangle1.length = 35;

        myrectangle2.width = 45;
        myrectangle2.length = 95;

        area = myrectangle1.area();
        System.out.println("Area is " + area);

        area = myrectangle2.area();
        System.out.println("Area is " + area);
}
}
 
 
  

Output of this Program:

Java Program Showing Use of class having method and returns a value by Asad Hussain

Written By: Asad Hussain

Java Classes Declaring Objects

                        Java Classes Declaring Objects

When you create a class, you are creating a new data type You can use this type to declare objects of that type. Obtaining objects of a class is a two step process. First, we declare a variable of the class type. This variable does not define an object. It is simply a variable that can refer to an object. Then we acquire an actual, physical copy of the object and assign it to that variable. we do this by using new operator. The new operator dynamically allocates memory for an object and returns a reference to it. This reference is, more or less, the address in memory of the object allocated by new. This reference is then stored in the variable. In java, all class objects must be dynamically allocated.

rectangle myrectangle;               // declares reference to object
myrectangle = new rectangle();  // allocate a rectangle object

New Operator:

The new operator dynamically allocates memory for an object. It has general form:

 class-var = new classname();

class-var is a variable of the class type being created. Class name is the name of the class that is being instantiated. Class name followed by parentheses specifies the constructor for the class. A constructor defines what occurs when an object of a class is created. Constructors are an important part of all classes and have many significant attributes.Most real-world classes explicitly define their own constructors within their class definition. If no explicit constructor is specified, then java will automatically supply a default constructor.

Assigning Object Reference Variables:

Object reference variables act differently than you might expect when an assignment takes place. For example, what do you think the following fragment does?

rectangle r1 = new rectangle();
rectangle r2  = r1;


After this code executes, r1 and r2 will both refer to same object. The assignment of r1 to r2 did not allocate any memory or copy any part of the original object. It simply makes r2 refer to the same object as does r1. Thus, any changes made to the object through r2 will affect the object to which r1 is referring, since they are the same objects.

Written by: Asad Hussain

Java Class Class Fundamentals

                        Java Class Class Fundamentals

Class is at the core of java. It is the logical construct upon which the entire java language is built because it defines the shape and nature of an object. It is the basis of Object Oriented Programming (OOP).

The General Form of a Class:

When you define a class, you declare its exact form and nature. You do this by specifying the data that it contains and the code that operates on that data. While very simple classes may contain only code or data, most real-world classes contain both.
A class is declared by one of the class keyword. The general form of a class is described below:

class classname {
type instance-var1;
type instance-var2;
//...
type instane-varn;

type methodname1 (parameter-list){
         // body of method
}
 type methodname2 (parameter-list){
         //
 type methodnamen (parameter-list){

}

}

The data, or variable, defined within a class are called instance variable. The code is contained within methods. The methods and variable are defined within a class are called members of the class. The instance variable are acted upon and accessed by the method defined for that class.Method determines how a class data can be used.

A Simple Class:

Here is a class called rectangle the defines two instance variable: width and height.

class rectangle {
   double width;
   double length;
}

Class declaration only declares a template. It does not create an actual object. To create a rectangle object, you will use statement like stated below:

rectangle  myrectangle = new rectangle ();

After this statement executes, myrectangle will be an instance of rectangle.
Thus, every rectangle object will contain its own copies of the instance variables width and length. To access these variables, you will use dot (.) operator. The dot operator links the name of the object with the name of the instance variable.

For exp, to assign the width variable of myrectangle the value of 100, you would use the following statement:

myrectangle.width = 100;

Here is a program  that uses class rectangle and compute area of rectangle:

/*
         This is a Java Program that uses class rectangle.
          Program developed by #Asad Hussain
         This file name is "rectanglearea.java".
*/
import java.util.*;
class rectangle {
  double length;
  double width;

}
public class rectanglearea {
    public static void main(String args[]){

        rectangle myrectangle = new rectangle();
        double area;

        myrectangle.width = 10;
        myrectangle.length = 15;

        area = myrectangle.width * myrectangle.length;

        System.out.println("Area is " + area);
   
}
}

Output of this Program:

Java Program that uses class rectangle to compute area by Asad Hussain

 

Written By : Asad Hussain

Java Jump Statements

                                Java Jump Statements

Java supports three jump statements: break, continue, and return. These statements transfer control to another part of your program.

Break:

In java, the break statement has three uses. First, it terminates a statement sequence in a switch statement. Second, it can be used to exit a loop. Third, it can be used as a civilized form of goto.

Continue:

If you want to force an early iteration of a loop. Then you can use continue statement. In while and do-while loop's end. The continue statement caused control to be transferred directly to the conditional expression that controls the loop. In for loop, control goes first to the iteration portion of the for statement and then to the conditional expression.

Return:

The return statement is used to explicitly return from a method. That is, it causes program control to transfer back to the caller of the method.

Written by : Asad Hussain

Java Control Statements Iteration Statements


              Java Control Statements Iteration Statements

Java's iteration statements are for, while, do-while. These statements create loops. A loop repeatedly executes the same set of instructions until a termination condition is met.

While:

While loop is repeats a statement or block while its controlling expression is true. Here is its general form.

while (condition) {
         body of loop
}

The body of loop will be executed as long as the condition is true. When condition becomes false, control passes to the next lie of code immediately following the code. The curly brackets are unnecessary if only a single statement is being repeated.
Here an exp of program using while loop that counts down from 15, printing exactly fifteen lines of "check":

/*
         This is a Simple Program Showing Use of while loop.
          Program developed by #Asad Hussain
         This file name is "Expwhile.java".
*/
import java.util.*;

public class Expwhile {
public static void main(String args[]){

        int n = 15;

        while (n > 0){
               System.out.println("check " + n);
               n--;
}

}
}


Output of this Program:
Java Program Showing use of while loop by Asad Hussain

Do-while:

If the conditional expression controlling a while loop is initially false, then the body of the loop will not be executed at all. However, sometimes it is desirable to execute the body of a while loop at least once, even the condition is false. For that reason so-while loop is used. The do-while loop always executes its body at least once, because  its conditional expression is at the bottom of the loop. The general form is :

do {
       body of loop
} while (condition);

The iteration of do-while loop executes the body of the loop and then evaluates the conditional expression.
The do-while loop is useful when you process a menu selection. because you will usually want the body of a menu loop to execute at least once.

/*
         This is a Simple Program Showing Menu Selection using do-while loop.
          Program developed by #Asad Hussain
         This file name is "Menudowhile.java".
*/
import java.util.*;

public class Menudowhile {
public static void main(String args[])
    throws java.io.IOException{
    char choice;

    do {
        System.out.println("Help on:");
        System.out.println(" 1. if");
        System.out.println(" 2. switch");
        System.out.println(" 3. while");
        System.out.println(" 4. do-while");
        System.out.println(" 5. for\n");
        choice = (char) System.in.read();
    }    while( choice < '1' || choice > '5');
   
    System.out.println("\n");

    switch(choice){
        case '1':
            System.out.println("The if:\n");
            System.out.println("if(condition) statement;");
            System.out.println("else statement");
            break;
        case '2':
            System.out.println("The switch:\n");
            System.out.println("switch(expression) {");
            System.out.println(" case constant");
            System.out.println("  statement sequence");
            System.out.println(" break;");
            System.out.println(" // ...");
            System.out.println("}");
            break;
        case '3':
            System.out.println("The while:\n");
            System.out.println("while(condition) statement;");
            break;
        case '4':
            System.out.println("The do-while:\n");
            System.out.println("do {");
            System.out.println("  statement;");
            System.out.println("} while (condition);");
            break;
        case '5':
            System.out.println("The for:\n");
            System.out.println("for(init; condition; iteration)");
            System.out.println(" statement;");
            break;
    }
   

}
}


Output of this Program:
Java Program Showing use of do-while loop by Asad Hussain

For:
It is a powerful construct. Here is the general form of the for statement:
for (initialization; condition; iteration) {
     body of loop
}
If only one statement is being repeated, there is no need for curly brackets. The for loop operates as follows. When loop first starts, the initialization portion of the loop is executed. Generally, this is an expression that set the value of the loop control variable, which acts as a counter that controls the loop. It is important to understand that initialization is executed once. Then, condition is evaluated. This must be a Boolean expression. It test the loop control variable against a target value. If expression is true, then body of loop is executed. If it is false , the loop terminates. Next, the iteration portion of the loop is executed. This usually an expression that increments or decrements the loop control variable. The loop then iterates, first evaluating the conditional expression, then executing the body of the loop, until the controlling expression is false.
Here is an exp showing Use of For loop:
 /*
         This is a Simple Program Showing comparison of two number using for loop.
          Program developed by #Asad Hussain
         This file name is "Expfor.java".
*/
import java.util.*;

public class Expfor {
public static void main(String args[]){

        int x, y;

        for ( x = 1, y = 40; x < y; x++, y--)
            System.out.println("x = " + x);
            System.out.println("y = " + y);

}
}
Output of this Program is:
Java Program Showing comparison of two number using for loop by Asad Hussain

Written By: Asad Hussain