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FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 2 Biological Molecules Definitions

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 2 Biological Molecules Definitions

The esters of fatty acids and alcohols are called acylglycerols.

Amino acids:
The compounds with an amino group (NH2) and a carboxyl group (COOH) attached to the same carbon atom, known as alpha carbon are  called amino acids. These are basic units of protein.

Alpha-helix structure:
In secondary structure of protein the folding back of the polypeptides is called Alpha helix structure.

The study of chemical compounds and the chemical processes in the living organisms is called biochemistry.

Polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones, or complex substances which yield polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketones subunits or hydrolysis are called carbohydrates.

The metabolism in which complex molecules are broken into simple molecules is called catabolism e.g., respiration.

Conjugate molecules:
The compounds formed by the combination of two different types of molecules are called conjugate molecules or compounds e.g., glycolipids and glycoproteins.

Fatty acid:
The compounds contain even number (2-30) carbon atoms in straight chain with attached hydrogen and having an acidic group COOH are called fatty acids.

Heat capacity:
Calorie specific heat capacity of water is number of calories required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water from 15 to 16 C .

Heat of vaporization:
The amount of heat required to change 1 gram of water into vapors is called heat of vaporization or specific heat of vaporization.

Hydrolysis means breakdown of large molecules into small molecules by the addition of water.

Organic compounds:
The compounds with carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are called organic compounds. e.g., protein.

Peptide bond:
The amine group of one amino acid reacts with the carboxyl group of another amino acid C-N bond is formed. This C-N bond is called peptide bond.

The lipids which are derivative of phosphatidic acid which are composed of glycerol, fatty acid and phospheric acid.

The polymers of amino acids containing carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen are called proteins.

The process of synthesis of RNA from DNA is called transcription.

The mixture of long chain alkanes (with odd number carbon from C25 to C35), alcohols, ketones and esters of long chain fatty acids is called waxes.

Written by: Asad Hussain


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