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Thursday, 25 June 2015

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 2 Biological Molecules Definitions

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 2 Biological Molecules Definitions


Acylglycerols:
The esters of fatty acids and alcohols are called acylglycerols.

Amino acids:
The compounds with an amino group (NH2) and a carboxyl group (COOH) attached to the same carbon atom, known as alpha carbon are  called amino acids. These are basic units of protein.

Alpha-helix structure:
In secondary structure of protein the folding back of the polypeptides is called Alpha helix structure.

Biochemistry:
The study of chemical compounds and the chemical processes in the living organisms is called biochemistry.

Carbohydrates:
Polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones, or complex substances which yield polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketones subunits or hydrolysis are called carbohydrates.

Catabolism:
The metabolism in which complex molecules are broken into simple molecules is called catabolism e.g., respiration.

Conjugate molecules:
The compounds formed by the combination of two different types of molecules are called conjugate molecules or compounds e.g., glycolipids and glycoproteins.

Fatty acid:
The compounds contain even number (2-30) carbon atoms in straight chain with attached hydrogen and having an acidic group COOH are called fatty acids.

Heat capacity:
Calorie specific heat capacity of water is number of calories required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water from 15 to 16 C .

Heat of vaporization:
The amount of heat required to change 1 gram of water into vapors is called heat of vaporization or specific heat of vaporization.

Hydrolysis:
Hydrolysis means breakdown of large molecules into small molecules by the addition of water.

Organic compounds:
The compounds with carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are called organic compounds. e.g., protein.

Peptide bond:
The amine group of one amino acid reacts with the carboxyl group of another amino acid C-N bond is formed. This C-N bond is called peptide bond.

Phospholipid:
The lipids which are derivative of phosphatidic acid which are composed of glycerol, fatty acid and phospheric acid.

Proteins:
The polymers of amino acids containing carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen are called proteins.

Transcription:
The process of synthesis of RNA from DNA is called transcription.

Waxes:
The mixture of long chain alkanes (with odd number carbon from C25 to C35), alcohols, ketones and esters of long chain fatty acids is called waxes.

Written by: Asad Hussain

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