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Thursday, 25 June 2015

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Biology Definitions

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Biology Definitions

Age distribution:
Different age structures in a population.

The study of the internal organs of an organism is called anatomy. It is also called internal morphology.

The chemical substances which kill germs in the body are called antibiotics. Which are extracted from microorganisms.

The smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of the element. e.g., H atom, carbon atom.

Biodiversity means varieties of species living on earth.

The elements found in the living organism are called biological elements. There are sixteen bioelements.

Biological Control:
Control of pests by some living organism is called biological control.

Biological Organization:
The study of biology at different levels is called biological organizations.

The study of the living things is called biology.

Biome is large regional community primarily determined by climate and secondarily by major producers e.g., grosses lands.

The removal or the degradation of the environmental pollutants or toxic materials by living organism is called bioremediation. e.g., bacteria, algae, fungi.

The part of earth inhabited by living organisms is called biosphere.

Branch of science which deals with the use of microorganisms to obtain useful products for mankind at industrial level.

An uncontrolled cell growth or division is called cancer.

A clone is defined as cell or individual and all its asexually produced identical offspring.

The production of the genetically identical copies of the organisms or cells by asexual reproduction is called cloning.

Association of two organism in which one gets benefit without harming or benefiting the other.

The population of different species living in the same habitat form a community.

The association in which the organisms compete with each other for food and space.

It is a logical consequence of a hypothesis.

Deductive reasoning:
It moves from the general to the specific. It involves drawing specific conclusions from some general principles.

A community together with its non-living surrounding is called ecosystem.

Developing stages of an animal from zygote to birth or hatching is called embryo.

The study of the development of an embryo till it is hatched or born is called embryology.

Endangered species:
The species that are near to extinct are called endangered species. Or these are the species that are in danger of extinction.

Environmental biology or ecology:
The study of relationship between the organisms and their environment is called environmental biology.

Eugenic aim:
It means to produce a human race with superior characters.

The development of more advanced and complex organisms from pre-existing simple ancestors is called evolution.

The dead remains of the living organisms or their imprints, preserved in the rocks are called fossil.

Fresh water biology:
The study of the organisms living in the fresh water bodies and the physical and chemical parameters of the bodies is called freshwater biology.

Gene flow:
Movements of genes between different population by migrations.

Gene frequency:
Total number of genes of a character in population.

Gene therapy:
The replacement of defective gene by a normal gene in the body is called gene therapy.

Genetic engineering:
The manipulation of genes is called genetic engineering.

The study of transfer of the hereditary  character from the parents to the offspring is called genetics.

Hardy Weinberg Law:
Under certain conditions of stability a population remains constant. it does not change (p + q)2 = 1. Or if certain assumptions are meet the gene frequency of a population remains constant.

The study of the tissues of an organism is called histology.

Human biology:
The study of man is called human biology.

Hydroponics culture technique:
The technique in which plants are grown in aerated water is called hydroponics culture technique.

Hypothesis is a statement, which gives tentative explanation of the observation.

The control of disease by using all methods, as and when required is called IDM.

Inductive reasoning:
It moves from specific to general. It begins with specific observation and leads to the formation of the general principles.

Integrated disease management technique:
The use of all relevant and appropriate methods to control the disease is called IDM.

Marine biology:
The study of marine life and physical and chemical parameters of sea or oceans is called marine biology.

Molecular biology:
The study of molecular structure of the organism, their cells or the organelles of the cells is called molecular biology.

The study of the form and structure of the different parts of the organisms is called morphology.

Association of two organisms in which both organisms get benefits.

Group of similar cells that perform a specific function.

Sub-cellular structures within a cell that performs a specific function.

The study of fossils and their relation with the evolution is called palaeontology.

The association in which one organism lives on another organisms gets food from it ans causes diseases in it.

The study of parasites is called parasitology.

It is developed by Louis Pasteur. This technique is used to kill the non-spore forming bacteria. It is used for the preservation of milk and milk products.

The animal which destroys our crops or storage grain is called pest.

Pesticide is chemical that kill the pests.

Phyletic lineage: 
A phyletic linage is a unbroken series of species. The species are arranged from the ancestors to the descendants. Each later species evolves from the species that was immediately before it.

The study of the functions of the different parts of an organism is called physiology.

The contamination of environment with harmful and unwanted chemical is called pollution.

A population is a group of living organisms of the same species located in the same place at the same time.

Population density:
Number of organism per unit area.

Population pressures:
Effects of population on other population and environment.

The association in which one organism kills and eats another organism.

A living thing is composed of living substance called protoplasm. Nucleus and cytoplasm collectively forms protoplasm.

Scientific law:
An irrefutable theory which remain constant in science is called scientific law.

Social biology:
The study of the social behavior and communal life of human being is called social biology.

Group of different tissues performing same function.

There is a series of new hypothesis. Each hypothesis supports the same results after repeated tests. Then this hypothesis is called theory.

A group of similar cells that performs a specific function.

Tissue culture:
Reproduction by growing tissues of plants is called tissue culture.

Transgenic plants:
The plants having foreign DNA in their cells are called transgenic plants.

A chemical derived from a germ which initiate production of antibodies in the body and make the person immune from the attack of that germ is called vaccine.

The study of the distribution of the animals in different regions of the earth is called zoo geography

Written By: Asad Hussain.

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