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Thursday, 25 June 2015

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Biology Definitions

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Biology Definitions


Age distribution:
Different age structures in a population.

Anatomy:
The study of the internal organs of an organism is called anatomy. It is also called internal morphology.

Antibiotics:
The chemical substances which kill germs in the body are called antibiotics. Which are extracted from microorganisms.

Atom:
The smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of the element. e.g., H atom, carbon atom.

Biodiversity:
Biodiversity means varieties of species living on earth.

Bio-elements:
The elements found in the living organism are called biological elements. There are sixteen bioelements.

Biological Control:
Control of pests by some living organism is called biological control.

Biological Organization:
The study of biology at different levels is called biological organizations.

Biology:
The study of the living things is called biology.

Biomes:
Biome is large regional community primarily determined by climate and secondarily by major producers e.g., grosses lands.

Bio-remediation:
The removal or the degradation of the environmental pollutants or toxic materials by living organism is called bioremediation. e.g., bacteria, algae, fungi.

Biosphere:
The part of earth inhabited by living organisms is called biosphere.

Biotechnology:
Branch of science which deals with the use of microorganisms to obtain useful products for mankind at industrial level.

Cancer:
An uncontrolled cell growth or division is called cancer.

Clone:
A clone is defined as cell or individual and all its asexually produced identical offspring.

Cloning: 
The production of the genetically identical copies of the organisms or cells by asexual reproduction is called cloning.

Commensalisms:
Association of two organism in which one gets benefit without harming or benefiting the other.

Community:
The population of different species living in the same habitat form a community.

Competition:
The association in which the organisms compete with each other for food and space.

Deduction:
It is a logical consequence of a hypothesis.

Deductive reasoning:
It moves from the general to the specific. It involves drawing specific conclusions from some general principles.

Ecosystem:
A community together with its non-living surrounding is called ecosystem.

Embryo:
Developing stages of an animal from zygote to birth or hatching is called embryo.

Embryology:
The study of the development of an embryo till it is hatched or born is called embryology.

Endangered species:
The species that are near to extinct are called endangered species. Or these are the species that are in danger of extinction.

Environmental biology or ecology:
The study of relationship between the organisms and their environment is called environmental biology.

Eugenic aim:
It means to produce a human race with superior characters.

Evolution:
The development of more advanced and complex organisms from pre-existing simple ancestors is called evolution.

Fossil:
The dead remains of the living organisms or their imprints, preserved in the rocks are called fossil.

Fresh water biology:
The study of the organisms living in the fresh water bodies and the physical and chemical parameters of the bodies is called freshwater biology.

Gene flow:
Movements of genes between different population by migrations.

Gene frequency:
Total number of genes of a character in population.

Gene therapy:
The replacement of defective gene by a normal gene in the body is called gene therapy.

Genetic engineering:
The manipulation of genes is called genetic engineering.

Genetics:
The study of transfer of the hereditary  character from the parents to the offspring is called genetics.

Hardy Weinberg Law:
Under certain conditions of stability a population remains constant. it does not change (p + q)2 = 1. Or if certain assumptions are meet the gene frequency of a population remains constant.

Histology:
The study of the tissues of an organism is called histology.

Human biology:
The study of man is called human biology.

Hydroponics culture technique:
The technique in which plants are grown in aerated water is called hydroponics culture technique.

Hypothesis:
Hypothesis is a statement, which gives tentative explanation of the observation.

IDM:
The control of disease by using all methods, as and when required is called IDM.

Inductive reasoning:
It moves from specific to general. It begins with specific observation and leads to the formation of the general principles.

Integrated disease management technique:
The use of all relevant and appropriate methods to control the disease is called IDM.

Marine biology:
The study of marine life and physical and chemical parameters of sea or oceans is called marine biology.

Molecular biology:
The study of molecular structure of the organism, their cells or the organelles of the cells is called molecular biology.

Morphology:
The study of the form and structure of the different parts of the organisms is called morphology.

Mutualism:
Association of two organisms in which both organisms get benefits.

Tissue:
Group of similar cells that perform a specific function.

Organelles:
Sub-cellular structures within a cell that performs a specific function.

Palaeontology:
The study of fossils and their relation with the evolution is called palaeontology.

Parasitism:
The association in which one organism lives on another organisms gets food from it ans causes diseases in it.

Parasitology:
The study of parasites is called parasitology.

Pasteurization:
It is developed by Louis Pasteur. This technique is used to kill the non-spore forming bacteria. It is used for the preservation of milk and milk products.

Pest:
The animal which destroys our crops or storage grain is called pest.

Pesticides:
Pesticide is chemical that kill the pests.

Phyletic lineage: 
A phyletic linage is a unbroken series of species. The species are arranged from the ancestors to the descendants. Each later species evolves from the species that was immediately before it.

Physiology:
The study of the functions of the different parts of an organism is called physiology.

Pollution:
The contamination of environment with harmful and unwanted chemical is called pollution.

Population:
A population is a group of living organisms of the same species located in the same place at the same time.

Population density:
Number of organism per unit area.

Population pressures:
Effects of population on other population and environment.

Predation:
The association in which one organism kills and eats another organism.

Protoplasm:
A living thing is composed of living substance called protoplasm. Nucleus and cytoplasm collectively forms protoplasm.

Scientific law:
An irrefutable theory which remain constant in science is called scientific law.

Social biology:
The study of the social behavior and communal life of human being is called social biology.

Organ:
Group of different tissues performing same function.

Theory:
There is a series of new hypothesis. Each hypothesis supports the same results after repeated tests. Then this hypothesis is called theory.

Tissue:
A group of similar cells that performs a specific function.

Tissue culture:
Reproduction by growing tissues of plants is called tissue culture.

Transgenic plants:
The plants having foreign DNA in their cells are called transgenic plants.

Vaccine:
A chemical derived from a germ which initiate production of antibodies in the body and make the person immune from the attack of that germ is called vaccine.

Zoo-geography:
The study of the distribution of the animals in different regions of the earth is called zoo geography

Written By: Asad Hussain.

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