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FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 4 The Cell Definitions

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 4 The Cell Definitions

Active transport:
The movement of molecules from lower concentration to higher concentration by the expenditure of energy is called active transport.

The cell can be defined as structural and functional unit of life. 

Cell theory:
All the living organisms are composed of cells and cell products.

The membrane bound structure, containing green pigment is called chloroplast. Present only in plant cells.

Colloidal solution:
The solution in which size of particles of solute is bigger than solution is colloidal solution.

The cytosol of cytoplasm contains cytoskeletal fabric. The cytoskeleton is composed of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments.

The soluble part of the cytoplasm is called cytosol.

The movement of molecules form the area of higher concentration to the area of lower concentration is called diffusion.

The intake of the food material by in folding of the membrane in the form of vacuole is called endocytosis.

Eukaryotic cell:
These cell contain a definite nucleus. Nuclear membrane is present and chromatin material is bounded by a membrane.

Fluid Mosaic model: 
According to this model the proteins do not form a continuous layer. It is not present on the outer surface infact. Proteins are embedded in the lipid bi-layers in a mosaic manner.

The viscous colloidal solution is called gel.

A granum is pile of thylakoids, stacked on each other like coins.

The magnification of a microscope can be determined by multiplying X value of ocular with X value of the objective. It is the enlargement of object with the use of lenses.

New definition of cell theory:
Living things are chemical organizations. These are composed of cells and capable of reproducing themselves.

Omnis cellula:
All the cells are formed only by the division of previously living cells.

The membranous bound and pigment containing bodies present in the plant are called plastids.

Prokaryotic cell:
It is primitive type of cell in which cell lack definite nucleus and membrane bounded organelles.

The living contents (nucleus and cytoplasm) collectively form protoplasm.

The human eye can differentiate between two points. Which are at least 1.0 m apart. This is known as resolution of eye.

Non-viscous colloidal solution is called sol.

Storage diseases:
Several congenital diseases are caused due to accumulation of certain substances like glycogen and glycolipids. These are called storage diseases. These are caused by absence of lysosomal enzymes.

Written by: Asad Hussain.