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Sunday, 2 August 2015

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 6 Kingdom Prokaryotae (Monera) Definitions

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 6 Kingdom Prokaryotae (Monera) Definitions


Aerobic bacteria:
These bacteria require free oxygen for the respiration.

Akinetes:
Akinetes are thick walled, enlarged vegetative cells.. These are the resting spores of cyanobacteria.

Antibody:
Antibody is a substance that protects the host against the infection due to attack of virulent organisms. These are produce in response of antigen.

Antiseptics:
Chemical substances used on living tissues that inhibit the growth of microorganism are called antiseptics.

Autotrophic bacteria:
The bacteria which can synthesize organic compounds from inorganic substances are called autotrophic bacteria.

Cell envelope:
The complexes of layers, extend to the cell protoplasm are collectively called cell envelope.

Conjugation:
The transfer of genetic material form donor bacteria to recipient bacteria by cytoplasmic bridge is called conjugation.

Cyst:
Cyst are dormant, thick walled and desiccating resistant structure.

Cytoplasmic matrix:
The cytoplasmic matrix is a substance present between the plasma membrane and the nucleoid.

Disinfectant:
The chemical agent used on non-living material that inhibit the growth of vegetative cells of microorganism are called disinfectant.

Facultative bacteria:
They can grow in presence or absence of oxygen.

Generation time:
The interval of time until the completion of the next division is known as generation time.

Heterotrophic bacteria:
The bacteria which cannot synthesize their organic compounds from simple inorganic substances are heterotrophic bacteria.

Hormogonia:
The broken pieces of filament are called hormogonia.

Humus:
Humus is a material formed as result of partial decay of plants and animals. It increases the fertility of soil.

Immunization:
The process of use of vaccine for producing resistance in the organism.

Mesosome:
The cell membrane invaginates to form mesosomes.

Microaerophilic bacteria:
These bacteria require a low concentration of oxygen for respiration.

Nucleoid:
The nuclear material or DNA of bacteria aggregates to form irregular shaped body called nucleoid.

Pili:
Pili are hollow non-helical and filamentous appendages use for attachment.

Plasmids:
Plasmids are circular double stranded DNA molecules that can self replicate and contain same resistance genes on them.

Prokaryotes:
Prokaryotes do not contain an organized nucleus and nuclear membrane is absent in them.

Slime:
Some bacteria are covered with loose, soluble shield of macro-molecules called slime.

Spore:
The metabolically dormant bodies with thick wall are called spores. These are resistant to high temperature.

Sterilization:
The use of physical methods to control bacteria is known as sterilization.

Vaccine:
A chemical the directly derived from the germ and produces resistance in the animal against the diseases is called vaccine.

Written by: Asad Hussain

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