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FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 6 Kingdom Prokaryotae (Monera) Definitions

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 6 Kingdom Prokaryotae (Monera) Definitions

Aerobic bacteria:
These bacteria require free oxygen for the respiration.

Akinetes are thick walled, enlarged vegetative cells.. These are the resting spores of cyanobacteria.

Antibody is a substance that protects the host against the infection due to attack of virulent organisms. These are produce in response of antigen.

Chemical substances used on living tissues that inhibit the growth of microorganism are called antiseptics.

Autotrophic bacteria:
The bacteria which can synthesize organic compounds from inorganic substances are called autotrophic bacteria.

Cell envelope:
The complexes of layers, extend to the cell protoplasm are collectively called cell envelope.

The transfer of genetic material form donor bacteria to recipient bacteria by cytoplasmic bridge is called conjugation.

Cyst are dormant, thick walled and desiccating resistant structure.

Cytoplasmic matrix:
The cytoplasmic matrix is a substance present between the plasma membrane and the nucleoid.

The chemical agent used on non-living material that inhibit the growth of vegetative cells of microorganism are called disinfectant.

Facultative bacteria:
They can grow in presence or absence of oxygen.

Generation time:
The interval of time until the completion of the next division is known as generation time.

Heterotrophic bacteria:
The bacteria which cannot synthesize their organic compounds from simple inorganic substances are heterotrophic bacteria.

The broken pieces of filament are called hormogonia.

Humus is a material formed as result of partial decay of plants and animals. It increases the fertility of soil.

The process of use of vaccine for producing resistance in the organism.

The cell membrane invaginates to form mesosomes.

Microaerophilic bacteria:
These bacteria require a low concentration of oxygen for respiration.

The nuclear material or DNA of bacteria aggregates to form irregular shaped body called nucleoid.

Pili are hollow non-helical and filamentous appendages use for attachment.

Plasmids are circular double stranded DNA molecules that can self replicate and contain same resistance genes on them.

Prokaryotes do not contain an organized nucleus and nuclear membrane is absent in them.

Some bacteria are covered with loose, soluble shield of macro-molecules called slime.

The metabolically dormant bodies with thick wall are called spores. These are resistant to high temperature.

The use of physical methods to control bacteria is known as sterilization.

A chemical the directly derived from the germ and produces resistance in the animal against the diseases is called vaccine.

Written by: Asad Hussain