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Tuesday, 11 August 2015

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 14 Transport Definitions

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 14 Transport Definitions

Active immunity:
The use of vaccines or antigens, which stimulates the production of antibodies in the body and makes the person immune against the disease or infections, is called active immunity.

Active transport:
The movement of molecules from lower to higher concentration by the expenditure of energy is called active transport.

The attraction of water molecules with the cell wall of the xylem cell is called adhesion. This helps water molecules to move up.

The antibodies are special types of proteins called immunoglobulin that are produce by the body in response of antigen.

It is a serum containing antibodies.

The antitoxin destroys the toxin produced by the invaders. Or these are the chemicals that neutralize the effect of toxins.

Apoplast pathway:
The movement of the ions through the extracellular pathway between the cells walls of the adjacent cells called apoplast pathway.

The blood vessels which carry the oxygenated blood away from the heart to different parts of the body are called arteries. All arteries carry oxygenated blood except pulmonary artery.

Artificial pacemaker:
The battery operated instrument which produces electrical stimulus in the heart is called artificial pacemaker.

Ascent of sap:
The upward movement of water and minerals through the xylem from roots to leaves is called ascent of sap.

The deposition of hard yellow plaque of lipid material in the inner most layer of the arteries is called atheroma.

The narrowing and hardening of the arteries is called atherosclerosis.

The flow of sap from the cut, pruned tapped or wounded plant with considerable forces is called bleeding.

Blood is a type of loose connective tissues. It is a medium composed of plasma and blood cells which have dissolved nutrients, gases, hormone, and wastes and it transport these materials to the body.

Blood pressure:
The measurements of the force which pushes up the blood against the walls of the blood vessels is called blood pressure. Or pressure exerted by the blood against the walls of arteries.

Blue baby:
The baby whose skin becomes blue due to mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood is called blue baby. It is due to incomplete partitioning of inter arterial foramen.

The microscopic blood vessels with only one cell thick wall are called capillaries. From capillaries materials are exchanged between cell and blood.

Cardiac cycle:
The sequence of events taking place during completion of one heartbeat is called cardiac cycle. 0.08s time required to complete one cardiac cycle.

Cell mediated responses:
The responses in which T-lymphocyte directly kills the microorganisms by phagocytosis is called cell mediated response.

Cell sap:
Water plus dissolved salt and sugar present in large vacuole of the plants cells is called cell sap.

Closed circulatory system:
A circulatory system in which blood moves in close vessels is called closed circulatory system.

The force of attraction among the water molecules is called cohesion.

Cohesion tension theory:
The transpiration pull produce water tension in the xylem which pull the water upward and the cohesive and adhesive forces maintain the water column in the xylem.

Cuticular transpiration:
The loss of water in the form of water vapours through the cuticle of the leaves is called cuticular transpiration. 5-7 % of transpiration occurs through cuticular transpiration.

The relaxed period of heart is called diastole.

The recording of electrical potential of heart is called Electro-cardiogram. Graphical recording of the electrical current that cause cardiac rhythms is called ECG.

Thrombus may be dislodged and carried to some other part of the circulatory system. It is called embolus on the new location. When blood clot moves from one part to another through blood circulation is called as embolus.

Facilitated diffusion:
Diffusion through protein molecules of cell membrane is called facilitated diffusion. Or movement of molecules from high concentration to low concentration through carrier proteins is called facilitated diffusion.

The loss of liquid water through the water secreting glands or hydathodes  in leaves is called guttation. It is due to root pressure.

The discharge of blood from the broken blood vessels is called haemorrhage. It may be due to smoking, stress and high cholesterol diet, etc.

Heart attack or myocardial infarction:
Sometimes, embolus or locally formed thrombus blocks the blood vessels in the heart. This blockage causes necrosis and damages the portion of heart muscles. This condition is called heart attack or myocardial infarction.

The maintaining of the internal body conditions and to keep internal chemicals constant is called homeostasis.

Humoral immune response:
The response of B-lymphocytes by producing antibodies to destroy the macro-organisms or toxin is called humoral immune response.

The condition of high blood pressure is called hypertension. It may be due to stress, high uptake of sodium, etc.

The increase of volume of components of the cell wall especially cellulose, pectin and lignin without dissolving in water is called inhibitions.

The capability to recognize the foreign material in the body and mobilization of cells and cell products to help remove the particular sort of foreign material with great speed and effectiveness is called immunity. Body defense against foreign material is immunity.

The interferons are proteins which destroy the nucleic acid of the invading organism. Now days these are helpful for the treatment of viral disease because theses cut the viral nucleic acid and destroy it.

Interstitial fluid:
The fluid present in the space around the capillaries and tissues is called intestinal fluid. It helps in exchange of material between capillaries and cell.

The uncontrolled production of the white blood cells is called leukemia. It is also known as Cancer of white blood cells.

The colorless protenaceous fluid that flows in the lymphatic vessel is called lymph.

Lymph nodes:
Lymph nodes are masses of connective tissues present at certain points along the pathways of lymph vessels. These nodes help in filtration of lymph.

Lymphatic system:
The system which transports  and returns material from the tissues of the body to blood is called lymphatic system.

The presence of excessive fluid in the tissues of the body is called oedema.

Open circulatory system:
A circulatory system in which blood does not move in close blood vessels is called open circulatory system. It is present in arthropods.

The movement of water molecules form a region of higher concentration to the region of lower concentration through a partially permeable membrane is called osmosis.

Osmotic potential:
The change of water potential of a system due to presence of solute molecules is called osmotic potential.

Plasma is primarily water in which proteins, salts, nutrients and wastes are dissolved. It is a part of blood.

The plasmodesmata  are cytoplasmic strands that extend between adjacent cells. Or these are the cytoplasmic bridges that connect the adjacent plant cells.

Pressure flow theory:
It states that an osmotically generated pressure gradient between source and sink drives the solution through the sieve elements. According to this theory materials move from source to sink with the help of osmotically generated pressure.

Pressure potential:
The pressure exerted by the protoplast due to endosmosis of water is called plasmolysis.

Root pressure:
The osmotic pressure created in the root which forces water and dissolved ions up into the xylem is called root pressure.

Serum is the fluid part of blood after clotting.

Sieve tube members:
The sieve tube members are joined longitudinally in a series to form sieve tube.

Sieve areas:
The portions of the cell wall which interconnect the conducting cells are called sieves areas.

The areas of active metabolism or storage like root tubers, developing fruits and immature leaves are called sink. It is the part where food is stored.

Isobilateral leaves:
In these leaves, the stomata are present in both upper and lower epidermis. e.g., lily and maze leaves.

Dorsiventral leaves:
In these leaves, the stomata are present only in the lower epidermis.

Areas where food is prepared and transported to the sink are called areas of source e.g. leaf.

Symplast pathway:
The movement of minerals through the plasmodesmata of the cell is called symplast pathway.

The contract phase of heart is called systole.

It is genetically transmitted disease. The patient of thalassemia has abnormal haemoglobin. Instead of having normal haemoglobin the patient has foetal haemoglobin.

A solid mass of plug of blood constituents(clot) in a blood vessel is called thrombus.

The movement of material into the body, with in the body and out of the body of the organisms is called transport.

The evaporation of water from the aerial parts of the plants especially through stomata of the leaves is called transpiration.

Vascular pathway:
In this pathway water moves form vacuole to vacuole through neighboring cells.

The constriction of the wall of arterial blood vessels is called vasocontriction. This constriction is under the control of nervous system and hormones.

The relaxation of the arterial blood vessels is called vasodilation. This dilation is under the control of nervous system and hormones.

The blood vessels which transport the blood from body cells toward heart are called veins. All veins carry deoxygenated blood except pulmonary vein.

Water potential:
The total kinetic energy of the water molecules is called water potential. Pure water has maximum water potential which is zero.


Written by: Asad Hussain.

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