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Friday, 26 June 2015

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 3 Enzymes Definitions

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 3 Enzymes Definitions


Activation energy:
The minimum amount of energy required to start a reaction is called activation energy.

Activators:
The detachable co-factors are called activators.

Active site of enzyme:
The site where substrate attaches is called active site of enzyme.

Apoenzyme:
An enzyme, with co-enzyme or prosthetic group removed is called apoenzyme, it is inactive form.

Co-enzyme:
The loosely attached non-protein part with an enzyme is called co-enzyme.

Co-factors:
Some enzyme contain a non-protein part called co-factor.

Enzyme:
The biological active protein which speed up chemical reactions in the cell are called enzyme.

Enzyme inhibitors:
A chemical substance which can react in place of substrate with the enzyme but is not transferred into products and block the active site of the enzyme temporarily or permanently is called inhibitor.

Holoenzyme:
An activated enzyme, consisting of polypeptide chain and co-factor is called holoenzyme.

Lock and key model:
According to this model, one specific key can open only a specific lock. Similarly, a specific enzyme can transform only specific substrate into products.

Optimum pH:
An optimum pH is a marrow range of pH in which enzyme function effectively.

Optimum temperature:
The specific temperature at which an enzyme can work at maximum rate is called optimum temperature.

pH:
The anti-log or negative log of the hydrogen ion concentration is called pH always greater than 7.

Prosthetic group:
The covalently bonded non-protein part is called prosthetic group.

Written by: Asad Hussain

Thursday, 25 June 2015

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 2 Biological Molecules Definitions

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 2 Biological Molecules Definitions


Acylglycerols:
The esters of fatty acids and alcohols are called acylglycerols.

Amino acids:
The compounds with an amino group (NH2) and a carboxyl group (COOH) attached to the same carbon atom, known as alpha carbon are  called amino acids. These are basic units of protein.

Alpha-helix structure:
In secondary structure of protein the folding back of the polypeptides is called Alpha helix structure.

Biochemistry:
The study of chemical compounds and the chemical processes in the living organisms is called biochemistry.

Carbohydrates:
Polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones, or complex substances which yield polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketones subunits or hydrolysis are called carbohydrates.

Catabolism:
The metabolism in which complex molecules are broken into simple molecules is called catabolism e.g., respiration.

Conjugate molecules:
The compounds formed by the combination of two different types of molecules are called conjugate molecules or compounds e.g., glycolipids and glycoproteins.

Fatty acid:
The compounds contain even number (2-30) carbon atoms in straight chain with attached hydrogen and having an acidic group COOH are called fatty acids.

Heat capacity:
Calorie specific heat capacity of water is number of calories required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water from 15 to 16 C .

Heat of vaporization:
The amount of heat required to change 1 gram of water into vapors is called heat of vaporization or specific heat of vaporization.

Hydrolysis:
Hydrolysis means breakdown of large molecules into small molecules by the addition of water.

Organic compounds:
The compounds with carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are called organic compounds. e.g., protein.

Peptide bond:
The amine group of one amino acid reacts with the carboxyl group of another amino acid C-N bond is formed. This C-N bond is called peptide bond.

Phospholipid:
The lipids which are derivative of phosphatidic acid which are composed of glycerol, fatty acid and phospheric acid.

Proteins:
The polymers of amino acids containing carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen are called proteins.

Transcription:
The process of synthesis of RNA from DNA is called transcription.

Waxes:
The mixture of long chain alkanes (with odd number carbon from C25 to C35), alcohols, ketones and esters of long chain fatty acids is called waxes.

Written by: Asad Hussain

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Biology Definitions

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Biology Definitions


Age distribution:
Different age structures in a population.

Anatomy:
The study of the internal organs of an organism is called anatomy. It is also called internal morphology.

Antibiotics:
The chemical substances which kill germs in the body are called antibiotics. Which are extracted from microorganisms.

Atom:
The smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of the element. e.g., H atom, carbon atom.

Biodiversity:
Biodiversity means varieties of species living on earth.

Bio-elements:
The elements found in the living organism are called biological elements. There are sixteen bioelements.

Biological Control:
Control of pests by some living organism is called biological control.

Biological Organization:
The study of biology at different levels is called biological organizations.

Biology:
The study of the living things is called biology.

Biomes:
Biome is large regional community primarily determined by climate and secondarily by major producers e.g., grosses lands.

Bio-remediation:
The removal or the degradation of the environmental pollutants or toxic materials by living organism is called bioremediation. e.g., bacteria, algae, fungi.

Biosphere:
The part of earth inhabited by living organisms is called biosphere.

Biotechnology:
Branch of science which deals with the use of microorganisms to obtain useful products for mankind at industrial level.

Cancer:
An uncontrolled cell growth or division is called cancer.

Clone:
A clone is defined as cell or individual and all its asexually produced identical offspring.

Cloning: 
The production of the genetically identical copies of the organisms or cells by asexual reproduction is called cloning.

Commensalisms:
Association of two organism in which one gets benefit without harming or benefiting the other.

Community:
The population of different species living in the same habitat form a community.

Competition:
The association in which the organisms compete with each other for food and space.

Deduction:
It is a logical consequence of a hypothesis.

Deductive reasoning:
It moves from the general to the specific. It involves drawing specific conclusions from some general principles.

Ecosystem:
A community together with its non-living surrounding is called ecosystem.

Embryo:
Developing stages of an animal from zygote to birth or hatching is called embryo.

Embryology:
The study of the development of an embryo till it is hatched or born is called embryology.

Endangered species:
The species that are near to extinct are called endangered species. Or these are the species that are in danger of extinction.

Environmental biology or ecology:
The study of relationship between the organisms and their environment is called environmental biology.

Eugenic aim:
It means to produce a human race with superior characters.

Evolution:
The development of more advanced and complex organisms from pre-existing simple ancestors is called evolution.

Fossil:
The dead remains of the living organisms or their imprints, preserved in the rocks are called fossil.

Fresh water biology:
The study of the organisms living in the fresh water bodies and the physical and chemical parameters of the bodies is called freshwater biology.

Gene flow:
Movements of genes between different population by migrations.

Gene frequency:
Total number of genes of a character in population.

Gene therapy:
The replacement of defective gene by a normal gene in the body is called gene therapy.

Genetic engineering:
The manipulation of genes is called genetic engineering.

Genetics:
The study of transfer of the hereditary  character from the parents to the offspring is called genetics.

Hardy Weinberg Law:
Under certain conditions of stability a population remains constant. it does not change (p + q)2 = 1. Or if certain assumptions are meet the gene frequency of a population remains constant.

Histology:
The study of the tissues of an organism is called histology.

Human biology:
The study of man is called human biology.

Hydroponics culture technique:
The technique in which plants are grown in aerated water is called hydroponics culture technique.

Hypothesis:
Hypothesis is a statement, which gives tentative explanation of the observation.

IDM:
The control of disease by using all methods, as and when required is called IDM.

Inductive reasoning:
It moves from specific to general. It begins with specific observation and leads to the formation of the general principles.

Integrated disease management technique:
The use of all relevant and appropriate methods to control the disease is called IDM.

Marine biology:
The study of marine life and physical and chemical parameters of sea or oceans is called marine biology.

Molecular biology:
The study of molecular structure of the organism, their cells or the organelles of the cells is called molecular biology.

Morphology:
The study of the form and structure of the different parts of the organisms is called morphology.

Mutualism:
Association of two organisms in which both organisms get benefits.

Tissue:
Group of similar cells that perform a specific function.

Organelles:
Sub-cellular structures within a cell that performs a specific function.

Palaeontology:
The study of fossils and their relation with the evolution is called palaeontology.

Parasitism:
The association in which one organism lives on another organisms gets food from it ans causes diseases in it.

Parasitology:
The study of parasites is called parasitology.

Pasteurization:
It is developed by Louis Pasteur. This technique is used to kill the non-spore forming bacteria. It is used for the preservation of milk and milk products.

Pest:
The animal which destroys our crops or storage grain is called pest.

Pesticides:
Pesticide is chemical that kill the pests.

Phyletic lineage: 
A phyletic linage is a unbroken series of species. The species are arranged from the ancestors to the descendants. Each later species evolves from the species that was immediately before it.

Physiology:
The study of the functions of the different parts of an organism is called physiology.

Pollution:
The contamination of environment with harmful and unwanted chemical is called pollution.

Population:
A population is a group of living organisms of the same species located in the same place at the same time.

Population density:
Number of organism per unit area.

Population pressures:
Effects of population on other population and environment.

Predation:
The association in which one organism kills and eats another organism.

Protoplasm:
A living thing is composed of living substance called protoplasm. Nucleus and cytoplasm collectively forms protoplasm.

Scientific law:
An irrefutable theory which remain constant in science is called scientific law.

Social biology:
The study of the social behavior and communal life of human being is called social biology.

Organ:
Group of different tissues performing same function.

Theory:
There is a series of new hypothesis. Each hypothesis supports the same results after repeated tests. Then this hypothesis is called theory.

Tissue:
A group of similar cells that performs a specific function.

Tissue culture:
Reproduction by growing tissues of plants is called tissue culture.

Transgenic plants:
The plants having foreign DNA in their cells are called transgenic plants.

Vaccine:
A chemical derived from a germ which initiate production of antibodies in the body and make the person immune from the attack of that germ is called vaccine.

Zoo-geography:
The study of the distribution of the animals in different regions of the earth is called zoo geography

Written By: Asad Hussain.

Tuesday, 16 June 2015

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 7 The Kingdom Protista or Protoctista Definitions

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 7 The Kingdom Protista or Protoctista Definitions


Apicomlexans:
Apicomlexans are a large group of parasitic protozoa some of them cause serious diseases in man like malaria.

Chitin:
Chitin is aminopolysaccharide. In this case, amide group combine with polysaccharides. It is present in cell wall of fungi and exoskeleton of arthropods. It is resistant to decay.

Coenocytes:
The multinucleated hyphae that lacks cross walls are called coenocytes.

Cutin:
Cutin is a wax. It forms waxy layer on leaves and reduce the loss of water by evaporation.

Diatoms:
The algae in which organism in covered by two overlapping shells are called diatoms. These are the largest producers of marine environment.

Food chain:
The relationship of organisms in which one organism eats and is being eaten by the other.

Monophyletic evolution:
The evolution from single ancestor is called monophyletic evolution.

Pellicle:
The bodies of certain protozoans like paramecium are covered by pellicle. Pellicle is composed of double membranous structure.

Polyphyletic evolution:
The evolution of a group of organisms from different ancestors is called polyphyletic evolution.

Protists:
The Protists are defined by exclusion it means that they have certain unique characteristics. So they cannot be placed in any other kingdom.

Thallus:
A body that cannot be differentiated into true roots, stems and leaves and lack xylem and phloem is called Thallus.

Written by: Asad Hussain.

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 13 Gaseous Exchange Definitions

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 13 Gaseous Exchange Definitions


Gills:
Gills are special structures of aquatic respiration. The gills are composed of filaments called gill lamella.

Inspiration:
The moving of the fresh air in the lungs is called inspiration.

Lenticels:
The cork tissues have special pores called lenticels. These help in transpiration.

Lung capacity:
The total inside capacity of lungs is called lungs capacity. Lung capacities of human lung is about 5 liters when it is fully inflated.

Malignant tumor:
In this case, the cells of the tumors do not stay at their original site. They are transferred to the other parts of the body.

Metastasis:
Invasion of cancer cells in normal tissues is called metastasis.

Photorespiration:
Respiratory activity which occurs in plants during daytime is called photorespiration.

Pulmonary respiration:
The gaseous exchange through the lung is known as pulmonary respiration.

Surfactant:
The surfactant is a mixture of lipoprotein molecules.

Written by: Asad Hussain.

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 5 Variety of Life Definitions

FSc Notes Biology Part 1 Chapter 5 Variety of Life Definitions


Binomial:
Linnaeus system of giving each species a scientific name comprising two words is known as binomial nomenclature.

Blood Serum:
Plasma minus proteins which do not coagulate under normal conditions is called blood serum.

Classification:
The arrangement of organisms into groups and subgroups on the basis of similarities is called classification.

Hepatitis:
The inflammation of the liver is called hepatitis.

Homologous Structures:
The structures which have common ancestry are called homologous structures.

Phage Virus:
Bacteriphage or phage virus is virus that infects bacteria.

Retroviruses:
The RNA virus which can convert their single stranded RNA into double stranded DNA are called Retroviruses.

Species:
A species is a group of natural population which can interbreed freely among themselves and produce fertile offspring, but are reproductively isolated from all other such group in nature.

Taxa:
The organisms are grouped into large distinct categories called taxa.

Virus:
Non-cellular infections particle which contains either DNA or RNA, normally enclosed in proteinaceous coat and reproduces only in living cells.

Written by: Asad Hussain.