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Friday, 23 January 2015

F.Sc ICS Notes: Physics XII: Chapter 21 Nuclear Physics Exercise Short Questions:

FSc ICS Notes: Physics XII: Chapter 21 Nuclear Physics Exercise Short Questions:

Question 21.1 What are isotopes? What do they have in common and what are their differences?
Answer 21.1 Nuclei of the same elements which have same charge number but different mass number are called isotopes of an element.
Isotopes of an element have:
  • Same charge number or atomic number.
  • Same chemical properties.
  • Same number of protons.
Isotopes of an element have different:
  • Number of neutrons.
  • Different physical properties.
  • Mass number or weight.

Question 21.2 Why are heavy nuclei unstable?
Answer 21.2 Light and stable nuclei have equal or almost equal number of protons and neutrons. However heavy nuclei such as 238U92 Uranium contains92 protons and 146 neutrons. Similarly 226ra88 Radium contains 88 protons ans 138 neutrons. The wide difference between number of protons and neutrons makes the heavy nuclei unstable.

Question 21.3 If a nucleus has a half-life of 1 year, does this mean that it will be completely decayed after 2 years? Explain.
Answer 21.3 If a radioactive element has half-life as one year, then after one year, half of the total number of atoms are left behind UN-decayed with the passage of another year, half of the UN-decayed atoms decay leaving behind 1/4 th of the atoms UN-decayed. Thus after two year,the element under consideration will not completely vanish. But only 3/4 of the total number of atoms will decay.

Question21.4 What fraction of radioactive sample decays after two half-lives have elapsed?
Answer 21.4 Let N be the total number of atoms of the radioactive element present at the beginning of time. After one half life, N/2 atoms decay while N/4 atoms decay in the second half life. Total number of atoms decayed in two half lives is N/2 + N/4 = 3/4 th of the radioactive sample decays in two half lives.

Question 21.5 The radioactive element 88Ra226 has a half life of 1.6 x 103 years. Since the Earth is about 5 billion years old, how can you explain why we still find this element in nature?
Answer 21.5 As half life of 226Ra88 is 1.6 * 10(3) years, so after 1.6 * 10(3) years, half of 226Ra88 decays leaving behind half of 226Ra88. Similarly after every half life, half of the initial atoms are left behind and it takes infinite time for entire element to decay completely. So even after billion years we still have some UN-decayed atoms of 226Ra88.

Question 21.6 Describe a brief account of interaction of various types of radiations with matter.
Answer 21.6  Interaction of alpha particle with matter: Alpha particles can ionize and excite atoms of the element through which they pass. The ionization caused by alpha particles may be due to direct elastic collision with atoms or due to electrostatic attraction between them and electrons of the atoms. The property of ionization is used to detect and measure the energy of alpha particles. For an alpha particle creates about 10(4) ionization in 1mm of air.

Interaction of Beta particle with matter: Beta particles are negatively charged, fast moving electrons coming out of nuclei of radioactive elements. Beta particles are 7000 times lighter than alpha particles and their charge is half of the charge of alpha particle. Ionization caused by beta particle is due to electrostatic repulsion between them and electron of the atom. ionizing ability of beta particles is about 100 times less than that of alpha particle since its mass and charge are smaller than alpha particle. However the range of beta particle through gas is about 100 times more than alpha particle.Path of beta particle is not straight due to deflection caused by collision with atoms of the medium.

Interaction of gamma particle with matter:  Gamma rays are mass less charge less radiation coming out of the nuclei of radioactive elements. The ionization caused by gamma ray photons is almost negligible, gamma rays interact with matter in three different ways depending on their energy.
  • At low energy less than 0.5 Mev, gamma rays interact with matter and produce photoelectric effect.
  • At intermediate energy between 0.5 Mev - 1.0 Mev, gamma rays produce Comptons's effect.
  • At  energy more than 1.02 Mev, gamma rays produce pair production.

Question 21.7 Explain how α and β -particles may ionize an atom without directly hitting the electrons? What is difference in action of the two particles for producing ionization?
Answer 21.7  We know that alpha particle are doubly positively charged and beta particles are negatively charged. Being charged particles they can ionize an atom without directly hitting the electrons. When an alpha particle passes close to an atom, it attracts its electrons and the atom is ionized. On the other hand when a beta particle passes close to an atom it repels the electron of the atom and knocks it out.

Question 21.8 A particle which produces more ionization is less penetrating. Why?
Answer 21.8 The particle having more ionizing power will lose whole of its energy in the short span. On the other hand, the particle with low ionizing power can travel greater distance in that medium because it will produce smaller number of ions.

Question 21.9 What information is revealed by the length and shape of the tracks of an incident particle in Wilson cloud chamber?
Answer 21.9 The thick straight and continuous tracks in Wilson cloud chamber are due to intense ionization produced by alpha particles.
The thin and discontinuous tracks extending in erratic manner shows the presence of beta particles. They show frequent deflections.
The radiations with negligible ionizing power gamma rays leave no definite track. The irregular tracks are those of photo-electrons produced by gamma rays.

Question 21.10 Why must Geiger Muller tube for detecting α -particles have a very thin end window? Why does a Geiger Muller tube for detecting γ-rays not need a window at all?
Answer 21.10 Since  α particle posses less penetrating power than gamma rays, therefore, a thin window allows their entry into Geiger tube easily. For detecting gamma rays, window become useless because of their high penetrating power. Therefore, G.M tube does not need a window for detection of gamma rays.

Question 21.11 Describe the principle of operation of a solid state detector of ionizing radiation in terms of generation and detection of charge carriers.
Answer 21.11 A solid-state detector is a specially designed p-n junction, operating under a reverse bias in which electron hole pairs are produced by the incident radiation to cause a current pulse to flow through the external circuit. Then the electrical pulse is amplified and recorded.

Question 21.12 What do you mean by the term critical mass?
Answer 21.12 The mass of uranium in which one neutron, out of all the neutrons produced in one fission reaction, produce further fission is called critical mass. The minimum mass of a material that can sustain a nuclear chain reaction. It is the quantity of such mass, which is enough to absorb most of neutrons produced in fission chain reaction and to produce large amount of energy.

Question 21.13 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power compared to the use of fossil fuel generated power.
Answer 21.13  Advantages:
  • The fuel has small cost.
  • It does not produce smoke.
  • Waste products can be reprocessed.
  • Cost of electricity is cheap.
  • It has radiation effect.
  • Its waste products are strongly radioactive and dangerous and cannot be easily dumped.

Question 21.14 What factors make a fusion reaction difficult to achieve?
Answer 21.14 When two light nuclei are brought together, a strong force of repulsion comes into play. This force of repulsion prevents the nuclei to fuse together. To overcome this difficulty the nuclei should be very high velocity, which needs temperature of the order  10(7)C. Such a high temperature cannot be produced on earth by any other means.

Question 21.15 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of fusion power from the point of safety, pollution and resources.
Answer 21.15 Advantages:
  • Since the fusion reaction is free from radioactive products, so it will be safe and free from pollution and resources.
  • The fusion reaction produces more energy per nucleon.
  • The energy produced by fusion is cheaper than fission energy.
  • It is more difficult to start fusion reaction.
  • It cannot be controlled like fission reaction.

Question 21.16 What do you understand by “background radiation”? State two sources of this radiation.
Answer 21.16 G.M tube record radiation even if no radioactive source is close to it. Thus record is due to radiation called background radiation. Background radiation is partly due to cosmic radiation which comes to us from some outer space and partly due to naturally occurring radioactive substances in earth's crust.

Question 21.17 If you swallowed an α -source and a β –source, which would be the more dangerous to you? Explain why?
Answer 21.17  α - particle have more ionizing power while β - particle are less ionizing. Thus α - particle can cause more damage to the tissue of the body.

Question 21.18 Which radiation dose would deposit more energy to your body (a) 10 mGy to your hand, or (b) 1 mGy dose to your entire body.
Answer 21.18 As we know that:
              D = absorbed dose = Energy / Mass
              E = D * Mass
Since the mass of the whole body is far greater than mass of hand, therefore according to above equation the case (b) 1mGy dose given to the entire body deposits more energy.  

Question 21.19 What is a radioactive tracer? Describe one application each in medicine, agriculture and industry.
Answer 21.19  Radioactive tracer:
  • Radio-isotopes is used to trace the path or position of an element through a biological, chemical, or mechanical system.
  • Diagnosis: by taking radioactive iodine with food, position of iodine can be followed by G.M. counter. So detector tells the position of the food in the digestive system.
  • Productivity of food grains: Labeled fertilizer of radio phosphorous ( P32 ) is placed at several depths and distances from plant. The relationship between the root growth and taking of phosphorous from the soil determine percentage productivity of food grains.
  • Labeling the elements: labeled radioactive carbon (C14) mixed in certain compound provide a simple test of leaks in pipes and the flow of rates of liquid without effecting the actual flow.

Question 21.20 How can radioactivity help in the treatment of cancer?
Answer 21.20 Radiotherapy kills cancer cells by damaging their DNA. Radiotherapy uses high energy radiation to destroy damaged cells. Radiotherapy with gamma rays form cobalt-60 is used in the treatment of cancer. Radioactive Iodine-131 is used for treatments of thyroid gland cancer. For skin cancer phosphorous- 32 or strontium-90 may be used.

Written By: Asad Hussain.

Tuesday, 20 January 2015

F.Sc ICS Notes: Physics XI: Chapter 11 Heat and Thermodynamics Exercise Short Questions:

FSc ICS Notes: Physics XI: Chapter 11 Heat and Thermodynamics Exercise Short Questions:

Question 11.1 Why is the average velocity of the molecules in a gas zero but the average of the square of velocities is not zero?
Answer 11.1 According to the assumption of kinetic molecular theory of gasses, there is a large number of molecules in gas which are not in the state of rest. These molecules move in all directions. It means that direction with some velocity is equal to the number of molecules moving in opposite direction with the same velocity the number of molecules moving in one. So sum of their velocities will be zero but the average of the square of the velocities will not be zero i.e.,
                                                                 (-v2) = <-v2>

Question 11.2 Why does the pressure of a gas in a car Tyre increase when it is driven through some distance?
Answer 11.2 When a car is driven on road through some distance. There is a force of friction between the Tyre and the road. Due to this force of friction, the Tyre heats up and the gas inside the Tyre. Work done by the car is converted into heat which raises the temperature of the gas in the Tyre. This increases the kinetic energy of the molecules. Since pressure is directly proportional to the temperature. i..e,
                                                                  P ∝ <K.E>

Question 11.3 A system undergoes from state P1 V1 to state P2 V2 as shown in the fig. What will be the change in internal energy?
Answer 11.3 As internal energy depends on temperature. In this case the temperature is constant. So internal energy is also constant. Hence there will be no change in internal energy.

Question 11.4 Variation of volume by pressure is given in the fig. A gas is taken along the paths ABCDA, ABCA and A to A. What will be the change in internal energy?
Answer 11.4 There will be no change in the internal energy in all three cases because the system returns to its initial state.

Question 11.5 Specific heat of a gas at constant pressure is greater than specific heat at constant volume. Why?
Answer 11.5 When a gas is heated at constant volume, heat supplied only increase the internal energy i.e., temperature because the piston is fixed so no external work is done to expand the gas i.e., W = 0, the total heat supplied is used to increase the internal energy and temperature of the gas. But when a gas is heated at constant pressure, the heat supplied is used in two ways i.e., some heat is used to do external work to expand the gas and the remaining heat is used to increase the internal energy.
Thus more heat is required at constant pressure than at constant volume. So the specific heat at constant pressure is greater than specific heat at constant volume.
                                             Cp > Cv

Question 11.6 Give an example of a process in which no heat is transferred to or from the system but the temperature of the system changes.
Answer 11.6 In adiabatic expansion or compression, no heat is transferred to or from the system but the temperature of the system changes. During adiabatic expansion temperature of the system falls while during adiabatic compression temperature of the system rises.

Question 11.7 Is it possible to convert internal energy into mechanical energy?Explain with example.
Answer 11.7 Yes, in adiabatic expansion, internal energy is changed into mechanical energy.
According to 1st law of thermodynamics.
                                                 Q = ΔU + W
In adiabatic process Q = 0
Then 0 = ΔU + W
                                               W = -ΔU
Thus the internal energy decreases because some internal energy is converted into mechanical energy.
Exp: In petrol engine, hot gases expand and the piston moves so internal energy is converted into work.

Question 11.8 Is it possible to construct a heat engine that will not expel heat into the atmosphere?
Answer 11.8  No it is impossible to construct a heat engine that will not expel heat into the atmosphere. According to second law of thermodynamics. "No heat engine operating continuously in a cycle can convert all heat supplied into work"

Question 11.9 A thermos flask containing milk as a system is shaken rapidly. Does the temperature of milk rise?
Answer 11.9 When the milk is shaken rapidly, kinetic energy of the milk molecules increases which causes the increase in temperature and the internal energy of the molecules of milk. When we are shaking, some work is done on it which converts into K.E of the molecules of milk so the temperature of milk increases.

11.10 What happens to the temperature of the room, when a air conditioner is left running on a table in the middle of the room?
Answer 11.10 Temperature of the room increases, as heat absorbed from the room is expelled in the same room. Also work done by the compressor is changed into heat which is expelled in the same room.

Question 11.11 Can the mechanical energy be converted completely into heat energy? If so give an example.
Answer 11.11 Yes, mechanical energy can be converted into heat energy. When work is done in compressing the gas by adiabatic process, the increase in internal energy of the gas is equal to the work done according to 1st law of thermodynamics. Fox exp: If we rub our hands, the whole mechanical energy is converted into heat energy.

Question 11.12 Does entropy of a system increases or decreases due to friction?
Answer 11.12 Entropy of a system increases,as work done due to friction is changed into heat and this heat goes into surrounding and becomes useless. According to law of increase of entropy, entropy increases for irreversible process.

Question 11.13 Give an example of a natural process that involves an increase in entropy.
Answer 11.13  When ice is melted due to high temperature of surroundings. The heat transferred to ice from surroundings is positive. Since ΔS = ΔQ / T. As ΔS is positive thus the entropy of this natural process increases.

Question 11.14 An adiabatic change is the one in which
a. No heat is added to or taken out of a system
b. No change of temperature takes place
c. Boyle's law is applicable 
d. Pressure and volume remains constant
Answer 11.14  (a) is correct because in an adiabatic process, no heat enters or leaves the system.

Question 11.15 Which one of the following process is irreversible?
a. Slow compressions of an elastic spring
b. Slow evaporation of a substance in an isolated vessel
c. Slow compression of a gas 
d. A chemical explosion
Answer 11.15 (d) is correct because a chemical explosion cannot be reversed. It is a irreversible process.

Question 11.16 An ideal reversible heat engine has
a. 100 % efficiency 
b. Highest efficiency
c. An efficiency, which depends on the nature of working substance
d. None of these.
Answer 11.16 (b) is correct because according to 2nd law of thermodynamics, the efficiency of an ideal heat engine cannot be 100%. It has highest efficiency.

Written By: Asad Hussain.

Monday, 19 January 2015

F.Sc ICS Notes: Physics XI: Chapter 10 Optical Instruments Exercise Short Questions:

FSc ICS Notes: Physics XI: Chapter 10 Optical Instruments Exercise Short Questions:

Question 10.1 What do you understand by linear magnification and angular magnification? Explain how a convex lens is used as a magnifier?
Answer 10.1 Linear Magnification: It is defined as the ratio of the size of image to the size of object.
                                             M = I / O = q / p
Angular Magnification: It is the ratio of the angle subtended by the image as seen through the optical instrument to the angle subtended by the object i.e.
                                             M = β / α
A Convex lens as a Magnifier: A convex lens of short focal length can be used as magnifying glass because when an object is placed close to the lens then the image formed is erect, virtual and very much magnified.

Question 10.2 Explain the difference between angular magnification and resolving power of an optical instrument. What limits the magnification of an optical instrument?
Answer 10.2 Angular magnification means how large or magnified image is formed by the instrument but resolving power is its ability to provide the details of an object under examination. The magnification of an optical instrument is limited due to defects in the lenses. Such as chromatic and spherical aberrations.

Question 10.3 Why would it be advantageous to use blue light with a compound microscope?
Answer 10.3 In case of grating spectrometer, the resolving power 'R' of the grating is defined as:
                           R = λ / (λ2 - λ1)
Thus we see that a grating with high resolving power can distinguish small distance in wavelength. If blue light is used in compound microscope, it increase the resolving power and more details on an object can be studied.
Question 10.4 One can buy a cheap microscope for use by the children. The image seen in such a
microscope have colored edges. Why is this so?
Answer 10.4 It is due to the defects of lenses known as chromatic aberrations. This is because of the prism like formation of the lens which cause dispersion of white light.

Question 10.5 Describe with the help of diagrams, how (a) a single biconvex lens can be used as a
magnifying glass. (b) biconvex lenses can be arranged to form a microscope.
Answer 10.5 (a)  Ray diagram of biconvex lens used as magnifying glass.

           (b)   Ray diagram of two biconvex lens arranged to make microscope.

Question 10.6 If a person were looking through a telescope at the full moon, how would the appearance of the moon be changed by covering half of the objective lens.
Answer 10.6  The person will see the full image of the moon if half of the objective lens of a telescope is covered but its brightness is reduced because less light is transmitted through the lens.

Question 10.7 A magnifying glass gives a five times enlarged image at a distance of 25 cm from the
lens. Find, by ray diagram, the focal length of the lens.
Answer 10.7  Magnification = m = 5       Image distance = 25 cm         Focal length of lens = ?
                            M = 1 + d/f
                             f = d / M – 1
                             f = 25/5-1
                             f = 6.2 cm

Question 10.8 Identify the correct answer.
1) The resolving power of a compound microscope depends on:
  1. The refractive index of the medium in which the object is placed.
  2. The diameter of the objective lens.
  3. The angle subtended by the objective lens at the object.
  4. The position of an observer’s eye with regard to the eye lens.
2) The resolving power of an astronomical telescope depends on:
  1. The focal length of the objective lens.
  2. The least distance of distinct vision of the observer.
  3. The focal length of the eye lens.
  4.  The diameter of the objective lens.
Answer 10.8  (1) The formula for resolving power of a lens of diameter D is given by:
                      R = D / 1.22 λ
 Hence the resolving power of a lens depends upon the diameter of the objective so (b) is correct.
(2) As we know that the resolving power of an astronomical telescope depends upon the diameter of the objective lens so (d) is correct.

Question 10.9 Draw sketches showing the different light paths through a single-mode and multi-mode fibre. Why is the single-mode fibre preferred in telecommunications?
Answer 10.9  It has a very thin core of about 5 * 10(-6 )m and has a relatively larger cladding. It can carry more than 14 TV channels or 14000 phone calls so it is preferred in telecommunication.

Question 10.10 How the light signal is transmitted through the optical fibre?
A10.10  The light signals are transmitted through the optical fibre on the principle of
  1. Total Internal Reflection.
  2. Continuous Refraction.

Question 10.11 How the power is lost in optical fibre through dispersion? Explain.
Answer 10.11 If the source of light signals is not monochromatic then, the light will disperse while propagating through the core of the optical fibre into different wavelength so the light of different wavelengths reaches the other end of the fibre at different times and the signal received is distorted. So the power is lost in optical fibre through dispersion.

Written By: Asad Hussain.

Sunday, 18 January 2015

F.Sc ICS Notes: Physics XI: Chapter 9 Physical Optics Exercise Short Questions:

FSc ICS Notes: Physics XI: Chapter 9 Physical Optics Exercise Short Questions:

Question 9.1 Under what conditions two or more sources of light behave as coherent sources?
Answer 9.1 Two or more sources of light behaves as coherent sources if they have no phase difference or have a constant phase difference between the waves emitted by them. A common method for producing two coherent light sources is to use single source to illuminate a screen containing two narrow slits. Hence two or more sources derived from a single source of light behaves as coherent source because they are in the same phase.

Question 9.2 How is the distance between interference fringes affected by the separation between the slits of Young’s experiment? Can fringes disappear?
Answer 9.2 The fringe spacing or distance between two consecutive bright or dark fringes in the young's experiment is given by:
                                 Fringe spacing = Δy = λL / d
Where λ is the wavelength of light used, L is the distance between screen and source and d is the separation of the slits. This relation shows that the fringe spacing is inversely proportional to the separation of slits. It means that greater the separation between the slits, the smaller will be fringe spacing. If by increasing the separation, the fringe spacing decreases and the bright fringes becomes so close that uniform intensity of light is seen and fringes disappear.

Question 9.3 Can visible light produce interference fringes? Explain.
Answer 9.3 Yes, the white light or visible light can produce the interference fringes. Since the white light is the mixture of seven colors so each color will produce interference fringes corresponding to its own wavelength. Hence the fringe pattern will be colored but the fringes will be so closed that it would be difficult to observe the interference fringes of visible or white light.

Question 9.4 In the Young’s experiment, one of the slits is covered with blue filter and other with red filter. What would be the pattern of light intensity on the screen?
Answer 9.4 Since red and blue light have different wavelength and will not be in phase coherence. Therefore there will be no dark and bright bands on the screen. So the interference of light cannot be observed properly. For better interference pattern, the monochromatic light should be used.

Question 9.5 Explain whether the Young’s experiment is an experiment for studying interference or diffraction effects of light.
Answer 9.5 Young's double slit experiment is basically used to study the interference of light. However spreading of light around corners of the slits also produce diffraction of light. However interference on the screen takes place only when the light coming out of the narrow slits suffers from diffraction first.

Question 9.6 An oil film spreading over a wet footpath shows colors. Explain how does it happen?
Answer 9.6 The colors are seen on the oil film spreading on the wet foot path due to interference of light waves. When a light beam is incident, a part of it is reflected from the upper surface of the oil film and a part of it is reflected from the lower surface of the thin film. The two reflected beams are coherent. When oil film is very thin, these coherent beams overlap. Hence constructive and destructive interference exhibit colors.

Question 9.7 Could you obtain Newton’s rings with transmitted light? If yeas, would the pattern be different from   that obtained with reflected light?
Answer 9.7  Yes, Newton rings can be obtained with transmitted light. However no phase is changed in transmitted light, so bright fringes can be replaced by dark fringes and so on. In case of transmitted light, the central point is bright.

Question 9.8 In the white light spectrum obtained with a diffraction grating, the third order image of a wavelength coincides with the fourth order image of a second wavelength.
Answer 9.8 For diffraction grating, the equation is:
                                                       d sinθ = nλ
where d sinθ is the phase difference, and n is the number of order and λ is the wavelength of the light used.
          For first wavelength λ, and 3rd order
                                                      d sinθ = 3λ1                              .....(i)
          and for second wavelength λ2 and fourth order
                                                      d sinθ = 4λ2                     ......(ii)
          equating the eq (i) and (ii)
                                                      3λ1 = 4λ2
                                                   λ12 = 4\3
                                                   λ12 = 4:3

Question 9.9 How would you manage to get more orders of spectra using a diffraction grating?
Answer 9.9 For diffraction grating, the equation is given by:
                                                      d sinθ = nλ
where d is the grating element  λ is the wavelength. In order to get more orders of spectra from θ = 0 to θ = 90 for a given wavelength, the grating element d must be increased i.e. Less number of lines per unit length be ruled on diffraction grating.

Question 9.10 Why the Polaroid sunglasses are better than ordinary sunglasses?
Answer 9.10 The sunlight reflected from smooth surfaces such as water, wet roads, lakes and glass is horizontally polarized and produce glare. This glare can be reduced by using Polaroid sunglasses because they can decrease the intensity of light passing through them. Hence the Polaroid sunglasses are better than ordinary sunglasses. Since Polaroid sun-glass reduce the glare of light entering into the eye. 

Question 9.11 How would you distinguish between UN-polarized and plan-polarized lights?
Answer 9.11 UN-polarized and plane polarized light can be distinguished from each other by using polariser. When light is viewed through polariser and it can be seen continuously even if the polariser is rotated, the light seen is unpolarized. However if on rotating the polarizer, the light becomes dim and cuts off by rotating the polariser through 90, then the light observed is plane polarized light.

Question 9.12 Fill the blanks.
  1. According to _________ principle, each point on a wave front acts as a source of secondary _______.
  2. In Young’s experiment, the distance between two adjacent bright fringes for violet light is _______ than that fore green light.
  3. The distance between bright fringes in the interference pattern______ as the wavelength of light used increases.
  4. A diffraction grating is used to make a diffraction pattern for yellow light and then for red light. The distances between the red spots will be_____ than that for yellow light.
  5. The phenomenon of polarization of light reveals that light waves are______ waves.
  6. A Polaroid glass_______ glare of light produced at a road surface. 
Answer 9.12
  1. Huygen's , wavelets.
  2. less.
  3. increases.
  4. more.
  5. transverse.
  6. polarizer.
  7. reduce.

Written By: Asad Hussain.

Thursday, 15 January 2015

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XI Synonyms A Sindhi Woman

        Intermediate English XI Synonyms A Sindhi Woman 

Bare: uncovered, naked, exposed.
Beneath: below, under, underneath.
Blown: driven, pushed, swept.
Crumb: small pieces, splinters, particles, scrap, shred, morsel, fragment.
Erect: straight, vertical, upright, upstanding, put up.
Excrement: waste, dung, rubbish, ordure, manure, stools.
Glide: slide, move, smoothly, float.
Grace: elegance, beauty, dignity, refinement, poise, charm.
Jar: container, pot.
Reflect: think, ponder, consider, meditate, contemplate, dwell on.
Ripple: disturbance, stagger, wobble, stumble, falter, undulate.
Slums: untidy part of city, poor area, hovel, a squalid dwelling, shack, shanty.
Tread: gait, pace, step, stride, footfall, walk.
Stoop: bow, crouch, bending, lowering, duckling, hunch.
Undulant: fluctuating, wave like motion, wavy, resembling waves.
Garbage: junk, waste, trash.
Straight: unbent, aboveboard, decent.
Weight: ordeal, affliction, trial tribulation burden, load, responsibility.

Written By: Asad Hussain

Wednesday, 14 January 2015

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XI Synonyms Ozymandias

 Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XI Synonyms Ozymandias

Antique: old, ancient, distant, of olden times, of historical interest.
Bare: uncovered, clear, naked, exposed.
Boundless: unlimited, endless, infinite, limitless, unceasing, immense, vast.
Cold: cruel, savage, brutal, callous, ruthless, pitiless, harsh, barbaric.
Cold Command: order showing indifference, merciless decree, harsh bidding.
Colossal: huge, gigantic, great, enormous, massive.
Decay: rotten, decomposed, run down, ruined, destroyed, destruction, perish, crumble.
Despair: disappoint, frustration, hopelessness, anguish, gloom, desolation, despondency.
Far Away: distant, farther.
Frown: Scowl, angry look, crease.
Sunk: concealed, covered, buried, hidden.
Lone: deserted, solo, distinct, lonely, desolate, barren, isolated, remote, uninhabited.
Mighty: forceful, powerful, vigorous, great.
Mocked: reproduce, duplicate, imitated, mimicked.
Passions: emotions, sentiments, feelings, disposition, temper, state of mind.
Round: on all sides, around, about.
Sculptor: engraver, carver, idol maker.
Sculpture: a statue.
Shattered: broken, smashed, demolished, chipped, traumatized, devastated, crushed.
Sneer: contemptuous look, deride.
Stamped: imprinted, emboss, mark.
Stretch: spread, extend.
Survive: live, remain, last, endure.
Trunk Less: torso, bodiless.
Vast: huge, large in size.
Visage: countenance, facial features.
Winkled: marked with wrinkles, furrowed.
Wreck: ruins, remnants, fragments, pieces.
Pedestal: base, foundation, pillar, column.

Written By: Asad Hussain

Tuesday, 13 January 2015

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XI Synonyms Ch 6 The Reward

       Intermediate English XI Synonyms Ch 6 The Reward

Pg # 38

Opportunity: favorable time, chance.
Determination: firmness, fortitude.
Determined: resolute, zealous.
Stuck: pursue, cling, fasten.
Organize: arrange, develop.
Competition: contest, match, tournament.
 Motive: target, objective, purpose.
Ambition: desire, aim.
Appointed: designated, nominated, selected.
Customs: rituals, conventions.
Athlete: sportsman, gymnast.
Wild: rash, reckless, violent.
Hurdles: hedges, fences, railings.
Argued: differed, opposed.

Pg #39

Preach: declare, announce.
Glory: prestige, majesty.
Throne: royal, seat, sovereignty.
Wore Down: reduced, overcame.
Exhibiting: demonstrating, displaying, presenting.
Strengthen: toughen, stiffen, give strength.
Rights: privileges, interests, benefits.
Victorious: winning, triumphant.
Accursed: damned, cursed.
Duly: properly, correctly.
Created: generated, originated, initiated.
Inaugurate: launch, initiate.
Cheap: economical. low priced.
Ceremony: celebration, ritual.
Gay: bright, richly colored.
Wound: intertwined, knoffed, interlaced.
Arranged: ordered, lined up, organized.
Polished: gleaming, sparkling.
Splendid: grand, magnificent.
Utterly: totally, completely, entirely.
Crowing: completion, perfection.
Melancholy: sad, gloomy, sorrowful.

Pg # 40

Lean On: bent, recline, repose.
Slightly: a little, somewhat.
Expressions: impressions.
Royal: Majestic, sovereign.
Applause: clapping, cheering, ovation.
Broke Out: started.
Assuring: ensuring, confirming.
Expected: demanded, required.
Bows: compliments, inclination of the body.
Uttered: let out, gave,emitted.
Sigh: moan, groan.
Mourning: lamenting, grieving.
Given Up: abandoned, left off.

Written By: Asad Hussain

Monday, 12 January 2015

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XI Synonyms Times

                Intermediate English XI Synonyms Times

Break down: demolish, destroy, lose.
Build up: construct, develop, enlarge, expand.
Cast away: jettison, discard, give up, throw away, reject, fling away, toss away, hurl away.
Dance: enjoy, be pleased, get pleasure.
Ecclesiastes: a chapter of Bible.
Embrace: grip, clinch, cuddle, hug, adopt, welcome, clasp, enfold, grasp.
Gather: collect, bring together, congregate, assemble.
Get: acquire, obtain, achieve.
Keep: contain, possess, retain, have.
Lose: deprived of, suffer a loss, be defeated.
Plant: sow, cultivate, grow, raise.
Pluck opp: gather, harvest, reap, garner.
Purpose: aim, goal, plan, objective, mission, target, motive, intention, cause, function.
Refrain: abstain, avoid, keep from, desist, renounce.
Rend: tear, rip, rive, shred, split, slit, scratch, slash.
Season: time, period, term, spell.
Sew: fasten, join, stitch, mend, darn, baste.
The heaven: sky.
Weep: cry, moan, wail, howl, blubber.

Written By: Asad Hussain

Sunday, 11 January 2015

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XI Synonyms In the Street of the Fruit Stalls

                      Intermediate English XI Synonyms

                         In the Street of the Fruit Stalls

Balance: keep upright, steady, hold fast, support, sustain, level.
Wicks: strings, cord, strand of twisted fiber, thread of fabric.
Cannon balls: a bullet or solid missile fired by cannon, bombs, ammunition.
Coin: metal money.
Compacted: condensed, compressed.
Fall: drop, descend, to fall downward.
Flame: fire, blaze, flash, flare.
Fountain: jet, spring, spout.
Dew: moisture.
Glow: shine intensely, sparkle, glimmer, glisten, gleam.
Gold hot: glowing yellow with heat.
Lantern: lamp.
Orbit: range, sphere, domain, circle.
Pitted: cavity, marked with holes, uneven, spotted.
Pyramid: a solid triangular shape, three sided.
Piled: gathered, heaped accumulated, assembled, collected.
Radiant: brilliant, bright, shinning, glowing, lustrous, ecstatic, delighted.
Rind: peel, crust, outer hard layer, skin, husk, outer coat.
Stall: booth, a small shop with an open front.

Written By: Asad Hussain

Intermediate F.Sc F.A ICS English XI Synonyms Where are you Going

   Intermediate English XI Synonyms Where are you Going

valley: vale, dale, low area between hills.
fatal: deadly, lethal, causing death.
furnace: a place of intense heat, a severe test of trial, boiler.
yonder: over there, at a distance.
midden: dunghill, heap of rubbish or trash.
odour: foul smell, stench, stink reek.
madden: make mad, upset, trouble.
gap: openings, gorge.
tall: bold, valiant, skilful person.
fearer: frightened, afraid, coward, apprehensive.
farer: traveler, way farer, tourist.
dusk: twilight, darkness, evening, sunset, night fall.
delay: linger on, wait, prolong, to hinder.
diligent: careful, heedful, hard working.
discover: disclose, reveal, unfold, expose.
lacking: shortage, inability to do, scarcity.
footsteps: tread, foot print, foot fall.
granite: a hard stone, boulder, rock, pebble.
grass: grassland, meadow, pasture.
imagine: visualize, presume, suppose, assume, consider, think.
horror: intense fear, terror, a person having fear.
heaver: a listener, a person who hears.
shape: ghostly form, a phantom, spirit.
twisted: bent, entangled, knotty, winding.
behind: at the back, in the rear.
swiftly: quickly, rapidly, speedily.
figure: spirit, ghostly form, phantom.
softly: gently.
spot: mark, blot, speck.
shocking: dreadful, terrible, appalling.
disease: ailment, malady, sickness.
looking for: searching for, be in the pursuit of, hunting for, looking around for.

Written By: Asad Hussain

Saturday, 10 January 2015

Intermediate Stories F.Sc F.A I.C.S NotesThe Horse and The Messenger.

          Intermediate Stories The Horse and The Messenger.

In olden times, there was a royal messenger. He was faithful but hasty by temperament. One day, the king ordered him to convey an important message to the commander of his army. The king asked him to deliver the message swiftly. He set out on his journey at once. At the time of departure, he noticed that a nail from one of the shoes of the horse was missing. As he was in haste, he neglected it. He made his horse gallop. When he covered half of the distance, he realized that the horse was limping. He got off the horse to see the problem. To his grief, he discovered that one of the shoes of the horse had gone off. In embarrassment, he made the horse run even faster. After sometime, the horse fell down and died. The messenger ran wildly. At last, he reached battlefield but he was too late. The king's army had been defeated because of no delivery of the message. He cursed himself for not being careful about the nail but it was too late to mend.


  • A Stitch in time saves nine.

Written By: Asad Hussain


Thursday, 8 January 2015

ICS Computer Notes Part 1 Chapter 1 (Basics of Information Technology) Short Questions from Past Papers

ICS Computer Notes Part 1 Chapter 1 (Basics of Information Technology) Short Questions from Past Papers

Q 1. What is data processing?
Ans. Converting raw form of data into meaningful information is called data processing. Computer machines are used as data processor.

Q 2. What is application software?
Ans. The software which is used to solve different problems of the user is called application software. They are specially developed to perform a specific task.

Q 3. What is a plotter?
Ans. Plotters are the printers which are used to output the high quality graphics and normally are used in printing of drawings, maps, circuit diagrams. The engineering fields like civil, mechanical and electronics are using these printers very efficiently. There are two types of plotters i.e. flatbed plotter and drum plotters.

Q 4. What is meant by input devices?
Ans. The parts of computer which are used to feed data into computer system are known as input devices. Keyboard, Mouse, Scanner and Mic are the input devices.

Q 5. What is computer?
Ans. Computer is an electronic device. Operating under the control of instructions, it can accepts data as in input, processes the data according to predefined rules, produces results, and stores the results for future use.

Q 6. What do you mean by QWERTY?
Ans. QWERTY is a standard type of keyboard which is used with PC computer and laptops. This keyboard has 103 key in standard and the first six keys of top row of this keyboard is QWERTY So it is called QWERTY keyboard.

Q 7. What are different types of printers?
Ans.  There are two major types of printer.
          1. Impact printer                
          2. Non-impact printer

Q 8. Write the name of all output devices?
Ans. The peripheral devices which are used to return the output are called output devices. Printer, plotters, projectors, monitors screen and speakers are commonly used out put devices.

Q 9. What is touch pad or track pad?
Ans. In laptops and notebooks a little pad is placed under the keypad, this pad is pressure sensitive with touch technology. When user presses figure on the surface of pad, the pointer on the screen moves.

Q 10. What is system software?
Ans. The software which is specially designed to control the system, hardware and to manage the application software is called system software. Operating system, utility software, language translators and device drivers are the examples of system software.

Q 11. Define the term hardware?
Ans. All the physical parts of computer are called hardware. These are manufactured by physical materials. They have some weight, occupy some space and can be touched.

Q 12. What is computer animation?
Ans. Animation is appearance of series of text, images and other drawing objects which are arranged in a sequence and create motion and the objects look like moving object.

Q 13. What is operating system?
. An operating system is a set of programs that work together to coordinate all the activities among computer hardware resources. Most operating systems perform similar functions that include starting and shutting down a computer, providing a user interface, managing programs, managing memory, coordinating tasks, configuring devices and establishing an Internet connection.

Q 14. What is data?
Ans. Data is raw, unorganized facts that need to be processed. Data can be something simple and seemingly random and useless until it is organized. In statistics we define data as “Data is the collection of raw facts and figures about any object”.

Q 15. Define in information technology?
Ans. Information technology is a technology that is involved in processing data and distribution of information using networks. This technology is concerned with development, maintenance and use of computer systems, software and networks.

Q 16. What are non-impact printers?
Ans. A non-impact printer uses the printing technique other than striking or punching the paper. Some of the non-impact printers spray ink, while others use heat or pressure to create images.

Q 17. List out the different components of SDLC?
Ans. System Development Life Cycle is a process of developing system through a multi-step  process from investigation of initial requirements  through analysis, design, implementation and maintenance.

Q 18. Describe the stages of SDLC?
. 1.  Preliminary Investigation
     2.  Feasibility study
     3.  System analysis
     4.  System designing
     5.  Development of software
     6.   System testing
     7.   Implementation
     8.   Maintenance

Q 19. What is digital camera?
Ans. The webcam or digital camera is a camera device which enable the user to record videos or still pictures in the computer. This device is broadly used for video communication.

Q 20. What is biometrics input?
Ans. These devices are used to input the physical or behavioral characteristics of a person in the computer. These devices can scan fingerprints, hand geometry, facial features, voice, signatures, and eye patterns.

Q 21. State the purpose of ATM?
Ans. The ATM is abbreviation of Automated Teller Machine, it works like a cashier in a bank and it is operated through an ATM card. ATM card is use to get cash, transfer funds, get balance statement and get prepaid cards for mobile phones.

Q 22. How is hardware different from software?
Ans. The hardware is all the physical parts of the computer and software are the non-physical parts, so hardware exits physically but software does not exists physically. Hardware are made of physical materials
but software are made of instructions.

Q 23. Differentiate between data and information?
Ans. Data is a collection of raw facts and figures about an object and when data is processed it becomes information. Data is normally huge in volume but information is less in volume. Data is unorganized and information is organized form of data.

Q 24. Define pointing devices?
Ans. A pointer represents a small symbol on the screen. It usually appears on the screen on Graphical User Interface environment. A pointing device is an input device. It is used to control the movement of the pointer or cursor on the screen.

Q 25. What is the use of output devices?
 Ans. The parts of computer used to return the output after processing are called output devices. Monitor, printers, projectors and speakers are the output devices. These devices show or print the result after processing.

Q 26. Describe microphone?
Ans. We can feed our voice in the computer with the help of microphone. This device is widely used in voice communication and voice chat. We also can record our voice with the help of this devices.

Q 27. Give some examples of operating system?
Ans. Operating system is an system software, MS-Windows, Dos, Unix and Linux are the examples of Operating system.

Q 28. Differentiate between bit and byte?
Ans. BIT is basic unit of computer memory and is abbreviation of Binary Digit and byte is collection of bits. One Byte consists of 8 bits.

Q 29. Describe print queue?
Ans. Print queue is the list of printing  jobs  that are stored in RAM and waiting for printing. It maintains the most current status of all active and pending print jobs.

Q 30. What is display screen? Type any two types of display screens?
Ans. Display screen is an output device used to show the output from computer. Monitor &LCD are most popularly used display screens.

Q 31. How is printer resolutions measured?
Ans. The resolution of a printer is measure in DPI (dot per inch) mean how much dots a printer print in one inch. The magnetized ink is very much in exercise to print special words on sensitive documents.

Written by: Asad Hussain  &  Muhammad Jawad

Intermediate Stories F.Sc F.A ICS Notes A Foolish Stag.

                   Intermediate Stories A Foolish Stag.

There lived a beautiful stag in a jungle full of streams and falls. He briskly moved through the whole area. One day he was drinking water at a stream. He saw his reflection in the clear running water. He admired the proportionate figure he had. He was so delighted to see his beautiful horns that he bragged that there was no such thing as was the beauty of his antlers. Then his eyes caught sight of his thin legs. He wished that he had legs more worthy to bear such a noble crown. He said to -himself, "What a pity to have such ugly legs with such beautiful horns."

While he was lost in his thought, suddenly, he heard the howling of the hounds from a distance. He got alert and the next moment, he took to his heels. The hounds proved no match for him. He ran at the top of his speed and soon reached the thickest part of the jungle. Reaching there, he hid himself in some thick bushes.

In the meanwhile, the hounds did not lose his smell and kept following him. The stag got ready for another race. He jumped up to run but fell back. His long antlers got caught in the bushed. He struggled hard to free himself but in vain. The hounds were getting nearer and nearer. He could now hear them barking ans snorting. At that critical moment the stag cursed his horns. He realized his mistake but it was too late then. The hounds reached there and tore him into pieces. Before dying, he realized that nothing made by God is useless. The legs he hated could have saved his life, but his beautiful horns caused his death.


  • All the Glitters is Not Gold.

  • Do not find fault with the ways of God.

  • Appearances are deceptive.

Written By: Asad Hussain


Monday, 5 January 2015

Quotations by Albert Einstein

                         Quotations by Albert Einstein

Before God we are all equally wise - and equally foolish.
Albert Einstein
Do not worry about your difficulties in Mathematics. I can assure you mine are still greater.
Albert Einstein
Ethical axioms are found and tested not very differently from the axioms of science. Truth is what stands the test of experience.
Albert Einstein
Every day I remind myself that my inner and outer life are based on the labors of other men, living and dead, and that I must exert myself in order to give in the same measure as I have received and am still receiving.
Albert Einstein
Few people are capable of expressing with equanimity opinions which differ from the prejudices of their social environment. Most people are even incapable of forming such opinions.
Albert Einstein
Gravitation cannot be held responsible for people falling in love. How on earth can you explain in terms of chemistry and physics so important a biological phenomenon as first love? Put your hand on a stove for a minute and it seems like an hour. Sit with that special girl for an hour and it seems like a minute. That's relativity.
Albert Einstein
I know not with what weapons World War III will be fought, but World War IV will be fought with sticks and stones.
Albert Einstein
I never teach my pupils. I only attempt to provide the conditions in which they can learn.
Albert Einstein
I never think of the future - it comes soon enough.
Albert Einstein
If I had only known, I would have been a locksmith.
Albert Einstein
If you are out to describe the truth, leave elegance to the tailor.
Albert Einstein
Imagination is more important than knowledge...
Albert Einstein
It is a miracle that curiosity survives formal education.
Albert Einstein
It is the supreme art of the teacher to awaken joy in creative expression and knowledge.
Albert Einstein
Laws alone can not secure freedom of expression; in order that every man present his views without penalty there must be spirit of tolerance in the entire population.
Albert Einstein
My religion consists of a humble admiration of the illimitable superior spirit who reveals himself in the slight details we are able to perceive with our frail and feeble mind.
Albert Einstein
Only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and I'm not sure about the former.
Albert Einstein
Perfection of means and confusion of ends seems to characterize our age.
Albert Einstein

The important thing is not to stop questioning.
Albert Einstein
The important thing is not to stop questioning. Curiosity has its own reason for existing. One cannot help but be in awe when he contemplates the mysteries of eternity, of life, of the marvelous structure of reality. It is enough if one tries merely to comprehend a little of this mystery every day. Never lose a holy curiosity.
Albert Einstein
The most beautiful experience we can have is the mysterious.
Albert Einstein
The most beautiful thing we can experience is the mysterious. It is the source of all true art and science.
Albert Einstein
 Insanity: doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results.
Albert Einstein
Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted.
Albert Einstein
Reality is merely an illusion, albeit a very persistent one.
Albert Einstein
The hardest thing in the world to understand is the income tax.
Albert Einstein
The significant problems we have cannot be solved at the same level of thinking with which we created them.
Albert Einstein
Whoever undertakes to set himself up as a judge of Truth and Knowledge is shipwrecked by the laughter of the Gods.
Albert Einstein
You cannot simultaneously prevent and prepare for war.
Albert Einstein
At any rate, I am convinced that He [God] does not play dice.
Albert Einstein
If A is success in life, then A equals x plus y plus z. Work is x; y is play; and z is keeping your mouth shut.
Albert Einstein
If someone can enjoy marching to music in rank and file, I can feel only contempt for him; he has received his large brain by mistake, a spinal cord would have been enough.
Albert Einstein
Science can only ascertain what is, but not what should be, and outside of its domain value judgements of all kinds remain necessary.
Albert Einstein
Great spirits have always found violent opposition from mediocrities. The latter cannot understand it when a man does not thoughtlessly submit to hereditary prejudices, but honestly and courageously uses his intelligence and fulfills the duty to express the results of his thought in clear form.
Albert Einstein
The unleashed power of the atom has changed everything save our modes of thinking and we thus drift toward unparalleled catastrophe.
Albert Einstein
When you look at yourself from a universal standpoint, something inside always reminds or informs you that there are bigger and better things to worry about.
Albert Einstein
Although I have been prevented by outward circumstances from observing a strictly vegetarian diet, I have long been an adherent to the cause in principle. Besides agreeing with the aims of vegetarianism for aesthetic and moral reasons, it is my view that a vegetarian manner of living by its purely physical effect on the human temperament would most beneficially influence the lot of mankind.
Albert Einstein
You see, wire telegraph is a kind of a very, very long cat. You pull his tail in New York and his head is meowing in Los Angeles. Do you understand this? And radio operates exactly the same way: you send signals here, they receive them there. The only difference is that there is no cat.
Albert Einstein

The most incomprehensible thing about the world is that it is at all comprehensible.
Albert Einstein
The release of atomic energy has not created a new problem. It has merely made more urgent the necessity of solving an existing one.
Albert Einstein
The secret to creativity is knowing how to hide your sources.
Albert Einstein
To punish me for my contempt for authority, fate made me an authority myself.
Albert Einstein
Too many of us look upon Americans as dollar chasers. This is a cruel libel, even if it is reiterated thoughtlessly by the Americans themselves.
Albert Einstein
Truth is what stands the test of experience.
Albert Einstein
Try not to become a man of success but rather to become a man of value.
Albert Einstein
We should take care not to make the intellect our god; it has, of course, powerful muscles, but no personality.
Albert Einstein
Yes, we have to divide up our time like that, between our politics and our equations. But to me our equations are far more important, for politics are only a matter of present concern. A mathematical equation stands forever.
Albert Einstein
As far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain; and as far as they are certain, they do 
not refer to reality.
Albert Einstein
Science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind.
Albert Einstein
Everything that is really great and inspiring is created by the individual who can labor in freedom.
Albert Einstein
It is the duty of every citizen according to his best capacities to give validity to his convictions in political affairs.
Albert Einstein
Common sense is the collection of prejudices acquired by age eighteen.
Albert Einstein
Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not one bit simpler.
Albert Einstein
If the facts don't fit the theory, change the facts.
Albert Einstein
Reading, after a certain age, diverts the mind too much from its creative pursuits. Any man who reads too much and uses his own brain too little falls into lazy habits of thinking.
Albert Einstein
The ideals which have lighted my way, and time after time have given me new courage to face life cheerfully, have been Kindness, Beauty, and Truth. The trite subjects of human efforts, possessions, outward success, luxury have always seemed to me contemptible.
Albert Einstein

Motivational Quotations

                             Motivational Quotations:

It does not matter how slowly you go as long as you do not stop.

Our greatest weakness lies in giving up. The most certain way to succeed is always to try just one more time.
Thomas A. Edison

Always do your best. What you plant now, you will harvest later.
Og Mandino

Keep your eyes on the stars, and your feet on the ground.
Theodore Roosevelt

Either I will find a way, or I will make one.
Philip Sidney

The will to win, the desire to succeed, the urge to reach your full potential... these are the keys that will unlock the door to personal excellence.

Keep your eyes on the stars, and your feet on the ground.
Theodore Roosevelt

Infuse your life with action. Don't wait for it to happen. Make it happen. Make your own future. Make your own hope. Make your own love. And whatever your beliefs, honor your creator, not by passively waiting for grace to come down from upon high, but by doing what you can to make grace happen... yourself, right now, right down here on Earth.
Bradley Whitford

You have to learn the rules of the game. And then you have to play better than anyone else.
Albert Einstein

If you can dream it, you can do it.
Walt Disney

You are never too old to set another goal or to dream a new dream.
C. S. Lewis

With the new day comes new strength and new thoughts.
Eleanor Roosevelt

In order to succeed, we must first believe that we can.
Nikos Kazantzakis

Don't watch the clock; do what it does. Keep going.
Sam Levenson

A creative man is motivated by the desire to achieve, not by the desire to beat others.
Ayn Rand

Problems are not stop signs, they are guidelines.
Robert H. Schuller

Believe in yourself! Have faith in your abilities! Without a humble but reasonable confidence in your own powers you cannot be successful or happy.
Norman Vincent Peale

The secret of getting ahead is getting started.
Mark Twain

Start where you are. Use what you have. Do what you can.
Arthur Ashe

Optimism is the faith that leads to achievement. Nothing can be done without hope and confidence.
Helen Keller

Ever tried. Ever failed. No matter. Try Again. Fail again. Fail better.
Samuel Beckett

Do you want to know who you are? Don't ask. Act! Action will delineate and define you.
Thomas Jefferson

What you get by achieving your goals is not as important as what you become by achieving your goals.
Henry David Thoreau

Never give up, for that is just the place and time that the tide will turn.
Harriet Beecher Stowe

Expect problems and eat them for breakfast.
Alfred A. Montapert

By failing to prepare, you are preparing to fail.
Benjamin Franklin

Sunday, 4 January 2015

Quotations By Asad Hussain 1:

                        Quotations By Asad Hussain:

If you have confidence in yourself, You can achieve anything. By: Asad Gujjar

Quote by Asad Hussain


Make up your mind. This clears the fog around you.
By Asad Hussain

Quote by Asad Hussain


Everyday is better than the Previous. If it is not then, I will make it better.
By Asad Hussain 

Quote by Asad Hussain


Quitting: Does not mean you can not do it, Sometimes it means You do not want to do it.
By Asad Hussain

Quote by Asad Hussain


What is Love?

Love is a feeling of complete, comfortable and relaxed. In the presense of each other.                                                                  By Asad Hussain


 We get Education to able to think and question and when we are able to question everything they try to shut us. 

Asad Hussain


You are Every Move you make. Make a Move.

By Asad Hussain

Written By: Asad Hussain